Poster Abstracts Details

Materials Research Institute
Huck of the Life Sciences
Institute for CyberScience
Energy and the Environment
Social Science Research Institute

Poster #1: Ultrasensitive Molecular Sensor Using N-Doped Graphene Through Enhanced Raman Scattering

S. Feng, M. C. dos Santos, B. R. Carvalho, R. Lv, Q. Li, K. Fujisawa, A. L. Elias, Y. Lei, N. Perea-Lopez, M. Endo, M. Pan, M. A. Pimenta, M. Terrones

As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (EF) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule's vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signal from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10-11 M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. The simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective experimental identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps.

Poster #2: Additive Manufacturing and Materials at Penn State

T. A. Palmer, R. Martukanitz, T. Simpson, G. L. Messing

Additive manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize manufacturing by providing on-demand production, decreasing material and manufacturing costs, allowing highly flexible designs for production, and producing features and material combinations that are not currently feasible. Additive manufacturing builds upon the U.S. strength in materials, design, simulation, and cyber technology, and offers extreme levels of product flexibility that enables new paradigms in design, materials, and manufacturing. However, the effective transition and utilization of AM within the industrial base requires an approach that engages a wide array of technologies and perspectives. To address the multidisciplinary needs for advancing this technology, the Center for Innovative Materials Processing through Direct Digital Deposition (CIMP-3D) acts as a catalyst for engaging broad faculty collaboration that enables pooling of resources to create an exceptional research capability. To achieve the broad perspective necessary for advancing AM technology, the Center also includes government, industry and academic partners having the common goal of advancing and implementing this important technology within the industrial base. Appropriate to AM technology, the Center functions through a cyber-enabled environment drawing upon the collective capabilities of members, while also supporting a central facility for the advancement and demonstration of various AM technologies for innovative design and manufacturing of metallic components and structures.

Poster #3: Neurovirology and the Genomic Analysis of Viral Variation

C. Bowen, C. Mangold, U. Pandey, D. Renner, M. Shipley, M. Szpara

A variety of viruses infect the human nervous system, often with severe consequences. Multiple viruses such as Zika virus, West Nile virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) cause neurological infections that require clinical intervention. While Zika and West Nile virus often cause transient infections, HSV creates a lifelong infection that is harbored in the nervous system of the human host. More than 70% of adults in the United States carry HSV-1 or HSV-2, which cause recurrent lesions due to viral reactivation from the latent reservoir in neurons. The Szpara lab examines the genetic variability of viruses such as human HSV. The large DNA genome of this viral pathogen presents new challenges for the analysis of genetic variation, as does its lifelong pattern of infection in humans. We are developing new next-generation sequencing approaches and bioinformatics analyses to examine patterns of viral variation. We examine these changes on a genome-wide scale over the course of an infection, from the initial point of infection and over time. Both human and agricultural models of infection are currently under study in the lab. We anticipate that these genomic approaches will be applicable for RNA viruses as well, including emerging pathogens such as Zika virus. Our lab has also developed a robust and reproducible human neuronal cell model for high-throughput screening of viral interactions with neurons. This specialized cell type plays a key role in the infectious process for neurotropic pathogens like HSV, Zika virus, and others. Starting from a mixed population of renewable precursor cells, we use an extensive process of differentiation and negative selection to generate a nearly-pure human neuronal cell population. We are currently using this model for the study of HSV-1 interactions with neurons, and will extend this work to neurotropic RNA virus infections in the future.

Poster #4: The Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation, an Energy Frontier Research Center

D. J. Cosgrove, L. Ullrich, C. T. Anderson, Y. Gu, C. Haigler, M. Hong, S. H. Kim, J. D. Kubicki, M. Kumar, K. T. Mueller, B. T. Nixon, H. O'Neill, A. W. Roberts, M. Tien, Y. G. Yingling, J. Zimmer

The Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF)'s Mission is to develop a nano-scale understanding of the structure and formation of lignocellulose, the main structural material in plants, forming a foundation for significant advances in sustainable energy and materials. Every living organism on Earth uses glucose as an energy source. Plants not only make glucose from sunlight, water and CO2, but they convert much of it into an energy-rich material -- the lignocellulosic cell wall -- that is both a versatile material and a recalcitrant feedstock for liquid biofuel production, both properties stemming from its hierarchical structure at the nano- to mesoscales. CLSF researchers investigate: (Theme 1) how plants transform glucose into the crystalline nano-fibril (cellulose) with very different physical properties from the starting material and (Theme 2) how cellulose is combined with other polymers to make cell walls with diverse physical properties. Our research addresses key questions in plant biology: by understanding the fundamental science of how plants manufacture lignocellulose, we may devise new ways to control it (through genetic engineering) and transform it (through chemical engineering) for improved technologies to supply our energy and material needs for a sustainable future.

Poster #5: Computer-Based Tutors for Moving from Declarative to Procedural Knowledge

F. E. Ritter, K.-C. Yeh, D. Guzek, P. Weyhrauch

We describe a project working to (a) Understand more about procedural learning and retention with respect to how learning arises from declarative representations, both empirically and through modeling. (b) Realize how to apply and test learning theories through developing lightweight tutors designed to move declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge. This is the Declarative to Procedural (D2P) tutoring system. We also are exploring how usability affects the use of tutors. (c) Develop tutoring materials related to the domain maintenance, broadly defined, to include debugging and maintenance of processes. (d) And to develop tutors to serve as examples, to help test and debug the D2P system, to test the learning theory, and to provide tutorial materials for the Navy. We have created tutors for declarative knowledge, such as Navy Medals, for procedural knowledge, such as discrete math and shooting moving targets, and for mixed knowledge such as battlefield trauma care and nursing. This is a general approach, and should support other training tasks.

Poster #6: Ion-Containing Polymers for Energy Applications

C. Iacob, D. Miranda, V. Lumsargis, H-J. Yu, P. Kuray, Y. Huang, R. Maruszewski, J. Runt

In general, our research focuses on the relationship between polymer dynamics and nanoscale phase separation, and how these influence macroscopic properties and performance of multiphase polymer systems. Many important devices in the expanding energy sector require materials that conduct ions through a medium, including actuators and batteries. For many next generation devices, single-ion polymer conductors (ionomers) are preferred for the creation of solid ion transport membranes. We use broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to develop molecular level understanding of ion transport and associated polymer dynamics in ionomers with various chemical structures. In related research, we also use BDS to interrogate ion and polymer dynamics in a remarkable new class of highly regular acid-functionalized (and cation-neutralized) ethylene copolymers. Both acid and/or ionic functionalities segregate from the polyethylene matrix and lead to unique morphologies. We are also investigating the role of nanoscale confinement on ion transport of conductive ionomers. The mobility of ionic species in nanoconfined geometries is both an important topic in polymer physics and has future practical relevance in design and processing of ion-containing polymer nanostructured devices. Finally, we are also investigating the fundamental connection between semi-crystalline polymer composition, molecular orientation, the resulting morphology, and their dielectric properties (from the point of view of film capacitor applications). The latter include, among others, dielectric constant and loss as well as breakdown strength.

Poster #7: Lateral Versus Vertical Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Thermodynamic Insight into Mos2

S. L. Shang, G. Lindwall, Y. Wang, J. M. Redwing, Z. K. Liu

Unprecedented interest has been spurred recently in two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) that possess tunable electronic and optical properties. However, growth of wafer-scale TMD thin films with controlled thicknesses and homogeneity remains highly challenging. This is due in part to the unknown thermodynamic limits and knowledge of diffusion mechanisms and rates, which can be used to identify suitable deposition methods and understand process conditions. Here, an integrated density functional theory (DFT) and subsequent application of CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) procedures are employed to provide thermodynamic insight into lateral versus vertical growth of the prototypical 2D material MoS2. Various DFT energies are predicted from the layer-dependent MoS2, 2D flake-size related mono- and bilayer MoS2, to Mo and S migration with and without graphene and sapphire substrates, thus shedding light on the factors that control lateral versus vertical growth of 2D islands. For example, the monolayer MoS2 flake in a small 2D lateral size is thermodynamically favorable with respect to the bilayer counterpart, indicating the monolayer preference during the initial stage of nucleation. In the case of the bilayer MoS2 flake, however, it becomes stable with increasing 2D lateral size. The critical 2D flake-size of phase stability between mono- and bilayer MoS2 is adjustable via the choice of substrate. In terms of calculated DFT energies and CALPHAD modeling, the size dependent pressure-temperature-composition (P-T-x) growth windows are predicted for MoS2, indicating that the formation of MoS2 flakes with reduced size appears in the middle but close to the lower T and higher P "Gas + MoS2" two-phase region. The calculations further suggests that Mo diffusion is rate controlling for MoS2 growth owing to its extremely low diffusivity compared to that of sulfur. The coupled DFT results and equilibrium predictions are validated by comparison to experimental data reported in the literature. For example, Calculated MoS2 energies, Mo and S diffusivities, and size-dependent P-T-x growth windows are in good accord with available experiments.

Poster #8: Small Molecules Efficiently Reprogram Human Astroglial Cells into Functional Neurons

L. Zhang, J. Yin, H. Yeh, N. Ma, G. Lee, X. A. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Lin, L. Chen, P. Jin, G. Wu, G. Chen

Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) possesses very limited self-repair capability as very few newborn neurons are constantly generated during the adulthood. Regeneration of functional neurons under the CNS injured or diseased condition remains a major challenge for functional recovery. To generate neurons locally, one big reservoir can be glial cells. In response to CNS injury, glial cells including astrocytes are activated to proliferate and become hypertrophic to occupy the injured CNS area form the scar-like structure in the chronic stage after injury. Previous work including our own, have demonstrated the reactive astrocytes can be reprogrammed into functional neurons in mouse brain and can potentially be utilized for brain repair. However, these glia-to-neuron conversions largely depend on the virus-based gene delivery and require complex brain surgery. To make the glia-to-neuron reprogramming technique applicable in clinic, here we report a chemical-based method. The sequential exposure to a cocktail of small molecules, the master conversion molecules (MCM), can successfully reprogram human astroglial cells into neuron-like cells in 8 days with conversion efficiency around 67%. These human astrocyte-converted neurons can survive for more than 4 months in culture and form functional synaptic networks, demonstrated by robust synchronous burst activities. Both transcriptional and epigenetic regulations play critical roles in astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming. After injected into the lateral ventricle of mouse brain, the small molecule-reprogrammed human neurons survive for up to one month and migrate out of the ventricles to integrate into the local neural circuits. Our study opens a new avenue using small molecules to reprogram reactive glial cells into functional neurons for brain repair.

Poster #9: Penn State Micro and Nano Integrated Biosystem (MINIBio) Laboratory

M. Akbar, Y. Chen, G. Cheng, L. Ha, H. He, S. Hao, P. Kerativitayanan, W. Li, M. Maurer, M. Nisic, L. Sun, Y. Wan, Z. Wang, Y. Xia, W. Zhang, X. Zhou, C. Zhu, S.-Y. Zheng

The Penn State MINIBio lab aims at developing innovative micro and nano technologies, applying these technologies to study complicated biological systems, and providing engineering solutions to current and future healthcare. The lab conduct research at the interface of materials, life sciences, medicine, and engineering. Current and recent efforts include: (1) Developing technologies for fluid biopsy methods for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment monitoring; (2) Developing nanomaterial-integrated microfluidic devices for infectious pathogen isolation and detection; (3) Synthesizing nanomaterials and integrating them of into devices for drug deliver, disease diagnosis and proteomics; (4) Micro/nano fabrication of novel devices.

Poster #10: Penn State Survey Research Center

Survey Research Center Staff

The Survey Research Center (SRC) at The Pennsylvania State University offers a complete range of data collection services for social, behavioral, and institutional research and evaluation projects. to university faculty and graduate students, as well as investigators outside the university. The SRC focuses on providing quality, cost-effective data collection, and project management services in the following areas: 1. Providing survey and project management services: Survey design, sample acquisition, and subject recruitment, incentive management, data collection staff hiring, training and supervision, mailings for pre-notification, consent, and recruitment, 2. Providing consultation for faculty and student investigators and preparing effective proposals for external funding, 3. Educating members of the Penn State Community on best practices and emerging developments in the survey research field, 4. Promoting and contributing to the science of survey research. Completing up to 50 projects a year, our staff provides expert knowledge and experience addressing challenges of collecting full-service surveys using the following modes of data collection, conventional representative and targeted telephone interviews, web-based and mobile enabled web surveys, scannable pencil and paper forms to be distributed by mail or in person, face to face surveys in households, schools, and other institutions, in-depth interviewing, focus groups, and other qualitative data collection.

Poster #11: Using Quality Talk to Enhance High-Level Comprehension in Language Arts and Science

P. K. Murphy, J. A. Greene, C. M. Firetto, A. M. Butler

During the past several years we have developed, refined, and implemented an intervention called Quality Talk for use in both science and language arts classrooms. Quality Talk incorporates the best features of previously existing discussion approaches into one unified, innovative, teacher-facilitated discussion approach aimed at promoting students' high-level comprehension of text, where high-level comprehension refers to critical-reflective thinking and epistemic cognition about, around and with text. The approach is premised on the belief that talk is a tool for thinking, and that certain kinds of talk can contribute to high-level comprehension. As part of two federally funded grants, through the National Science Foundation and Institute of Education Sciences, we have iteratively refined and developed the model in both science and language arts. Specifically, Quality Talk Science (QTS) has been incorporated into both high school physics and chemistry classrooms with discussions focused on a variety of topics (e.g., nuclear fission, or airbags). It aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards through facilitation of students' understanding and use of models, analysis and interpretation of data, and the ability to engage in argumentation using reasoning and evidence necessary for a 21st century STEM education. Likewise, Quality Talk Language Arts (QTLA) has been incorporated into elementary language arts classrooms with discussions focused on texts read as part of the teachers' existing language arts curriculum (i.e., the adopted reading curriculum). It aligns with the Common Core State Standards through its emphasis on teaching students how to express their own ideas orally and in writing, using reasons and evidence to support their claims, and engage in collaborative discussions, building on their peers' ideas. In our poster we will report the substantive evidence we have gathered over the past three years that support the effectiveness of Quality Talk across both content areas. In QTS we used a quasi-experimental design (four treatment three control teachers and their students) to investigate the effects on students written scientific argumentation performance. Analyses revealed a statistically and practically significant interaction of time and condition showing the QTS students outperformed the control group students from pretest to posttest, accounting for both domain (i.e., physics and chemistry) and science content. In QTLA multilevel modeling revealed that statistically and practically significant increases were evidenced on measures of students' text comprehension and transfer assessments of written argumentation, indicating that QT enhances high-level comprehension as intended; results were replicated in our second year, where, on average, students displayed positive gains in both basic and high-level comprehension. We will also report findings still being analyzed across both of our projects.

Poster #12: The Magneto-Active Composites and Structures (MACS) Lab at Penn State

M. Aurelio, C. Breznak, B. Cowen, A. Erol, T. Haussner, K. Leshkow, K. Lli, A. Haelsig, L. Yost, P. von Lockette

The Magneto-Active Structures and Composites Lab (MACS) fabricates and models magnetically active materials for origami, locomotive and sensory applications. The Lab consists of an experimental side, which fabricates and characterizes magnetic material, as well as a modeling side which aims to produce models to predict the response of magneto-active structures. Current projects within the lab include the fabrication and magneto-elastic characterization of magnetic materials, the development of a 4-dimensional printer capable of printing non/magnetic material with local alignment, and the prediction of deformed shapes of multi-field structures. For origami applications, magneto-active elastomers (MAE) are fabricated by embedding hard magnetic particles within an elastomer matrix. As an MAE cures, an external magnetic field can be applied to align the particles in a specified orientation, such as an in-plane alignment or an out of plane alignment. MAEs can then be strategically placed on flexible material, to replicate known origami structures. This is accomplished because MAEs have a preferred magnetic direction. When this preferred magnetization is not parallel to an applied external field, torque will be generated, and the MAE will rotate to align with the external field. To calculate the torque generated by an MAE, the remanent magnetization of the MAE must be determined. To find the remanent magnetization, a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) is used. The VSM applies an external magnetic field on the MAE, and measure the magnetic moment produced. Using the resulting hysteresis loop, the magnetic properties of the MAE can be determined. Currently, magneto-active structures are fabricated manually. In an effort to make more uniform material with arbitrary magnetizations, a 4-dimensional printer is being developed. Commonly used photo-curable additive manufacturing materials are mixed with magnetic particles to make printable magnetic material. Complementary to the experimental side of the MACS Lab, is the modeling side. Using Comsol Multiphysics and in house code, magnetically active material and electrically active material are modeled while results are compared to experimental data. A 1-dimensional analytical model has been developed from the equilibrium equations of a differential element at each point of a beam composed of two layers consisting of active materials. The equations are written in terms of the curvatures at each point using a finite difference method. Additionally, a nonlinear model is used for the electrostriction of electro-active polymer. The model is based on the microstructure of the P(VDF) based terpolymer, which undergoes conformational changes when polarized due to the dipoles reorienting under an electric field. A network model composed of dipoles connected via chains is developed, with its free energy modeled by the composition of dipole-dipole interactions and a hyperelastic m

Poster #13: Insights into Axonal Injury Using Embedded Head Model

H. T. Garimella, R. H. Kraft

Traumatic brain injury is a debilitating injury and a significant health problem in the United States, which is estimated to occur in 1.6-1.8 million people annually. Axonal injury, a common type of traumatic brain injury, is primarily characterized by damage to the axons. Enhanced knowledge of the axonal deformation during a head impact may facilitate a better understanding of the primary injury mechanism and secondary effects that may lead to functional deficits and long-term neurodegeneration. Advancements in non-invasive imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, coupled with novel computational methods may facilitate an improved understanding of brain injury. The poster focuses on our efforts to employ the embedded finite element method to model axonal fiber tracts, which represent bundles of neuronal cells that can be visualized using diffusion tensor imaging. In the approach, each fiber tract is modeled as a collection of connected truss elements embedded in a matrix (representing brain tissue). Embedded element constraint is used to transfer the strains from the matrix to the axonal fiber tracts. Various approaches to validate the method will be presented and its advantages will be discussed. One of the most exciting features of the approach is that each fiber tract is explicitly represented in the model, as opposed to creating an averaged fiber direction vector to be used in a constitutive model.

Poster #14: Controlling Chemistry and Microstructure for Functional Soft Materials

Y. Lee, E. Gomez

The research focus of the Gomez group is on understanding how structure at various length scales affects macroscopic properties of soft condensed matter. Though diverse, complex organic molecules share free energy landscapes dominated by non-equilibrium states and a theme of disorder. Understanding the fundamental processes that lead to, for example, charge transport and separation requires characterization of equilibrium, near equilibrium and far from equilibrium structures. Current efforts are directed at understanding the structural parameters that affect the performance of organic electronics, including solar cells and transistors, through a combination of electron and light microscopy, X-ray and light scattering, electron diffraction, and device testing. Through model systems, we study the physics of charge injection and charge transfer at semiconductor-metal interfaces as well as organic heterojunctions. Furthermore, we examine the microstructure of polymeric membranes used in water filtration to uncover how membrane performance depends on structural properties. We are also extending our structural characterization tools for the study of biological systems, including proteins, viruses, and plant cell walls.

Poster #15: The Methodology Center: Advancing Methods, Improving Health

A. T. Wagner

The Methodology Center is an interdisciplinary research center within the College of Health and Human Development. We develop and disseminate new methods for social, behavioral, and health sciences research focusing on vital public health issues. This poster will provide a brief introduction to our research on time-varying effect modeling, latent class modeling, optimizing interventions, variable selection, and adaptive interventions. As a designated National Institute on Drug Abuse Center of Excellence, we serve as a national resource in the development and dissemination of innovative research methods. We draw upon and integrate methodological perspectives from a variety of disciplines, including statistics, engineering, psychology, and human development, to enable new categories of scientific research questions to be addressed. Although our work is broadly applicable, we specialize in methods for research on behavioral approaches to the prevention and treatment of health problems, with emphasis on alcohol abuse, tobacco use, other drug abuse, and HIV. New technologies and approaches have enabled the collection of vast amounts of data that have great potential for improving public health. For example, smartphones and sensors are being used to obtain frequent (e.g., several times/day) real-time measures of an individual's behavior, cognitions, mood, physiological state, and environment. Smartphones, then, can be used to both measure important constructs and to deliver mHealth interventions--but this requires new statistical methods for analyzing complex data sets. These data, alongside other emergent data types like fMRI and genetics data, can be used to inform a new generation of interventions to help people manage their behavior and improve their health. However, statistical analysis methods, the keys investigators use to open the door to the scientific knowledge contained in behavioral data, have not kept up with the complexity of modern data sets and the sophistication of the questions posed by today's behavioral researchers. Methodology Center researchers are developing and disseminating innovative statistical methods designed to unlock the knowledge contained in complex behavioral data and put this knowledge to use to improve public health.

Poster #16: Study on the Interaction Between Bioenergy Crops Shrub Willow and Switchgrass and Environmental Factors

W. Wang, J. Carlson

Shrub willow and switchgrass have superior properties for use as bioenergy feedstocks on marginal agricultural and abandoned mine lands in Northeast US. However, in plantations, willow and switchgrass face various environmental stresses, which can have significant impacts on their growth and yield. We are studying interactions between environmental factors and shrub willow and switchgrass at the transcriptome and soil microbiome levels, to help optimized growth conditions and development of cultivars best adapted to particular environments.

Poster #17: Thermal Stabilization of Vaccines Using Structural Proteins for the Developing World

R. Nissly, A. Pena-Francesch, S. Kuchipudi, M. C. Demirel

We developed a novel methodology to thermally stabilize biologically active agents used in vaccines. The technology is based on squid ring teeth (SRT) and silk proteins which represents a unique class of structural proteins for their chemistry and molecular architecture. Structural proteins has been a key technology for stabilizing and preserving biologically active agents (e.g. enzymes) at elevated temperatures. We developed heat-stable vaccines for the developing worlds by focusing on a heat-stable influenza vaccine.

Poster #18: Powered Motion at the Nanoscale

J. Albert, A. Altemose, A. Borhan, P. J. Butler, M. Collins, P. Cremer, V. H. Crespi, K. Dey, A. Garg, R. Golestanian, P. Huang, T. Huang, P. Illien, E. Jewell, P. Lammert, T. E. Mallouk, A. Nourhani, I. Ortiz, L. Ren, M. A. Sanchez Farran, A. Sen, A. Sendecki, B. Tansi, S. Trolier-McKinstry, L. Valdez, D. Velegol, X. Zhao

Interdisciplinary Research Group 2 of the Center for Nanoscale Science makes, models, and studies autonomous motors and pumps that use local chemical, optical, thermal, and acoustic fields to power motion on molecular to microscopic length scales. In addition to providing information about the mechanisms of motility, the study of synthetic motors addresses fundamental questions about emergent collective behavior of micro- and nanoparticles that comprise active matter. It builds towards the long-term goal of creating smart materials whose parts autonomously and collectively interact with one another and their surroundings. Specific Goals: 1. Study nano/micromotor propulsion and model their collective behavior from the bottom up. 2. Determine mechanisms of chemotaxis that drive emergent phenomena such as predator-prey behavior, oscillation, and self-organization. 3. Construct non-equilibrium stability diagrams of collective behavior to predict nonlinearities for purposes such as chemical sensing. 4. Design engineered systems to exploit chemical and acoustic propulsion in microfluidic pumping, separations, and logic.

Poster #19: Materials Development for Hydrofracturing in Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales

J. R. Hellmann, B. E. Scheetz

The goal in hydraulic stimulation of gas and oil-containing shales is maintaining high permeability paths for resource recovery over the life of the well. This is commonly achieved by propping open the hydraulically-induced fractures with ceramic aggregates, known in the industry as proppants. Conventional proppants include silica sands, sintered aluminosilicate aggregates, and in some instances polymer-based composites. However, the mechanical properties and morphologies of these materials are insufficient to achieve long-term durability under the pressures and flow conditions present in deep gas deposits, particularly in plays containing condensed phases. Our work has focused on developing new synthetic proppants which exhibit spherical morphology (beneficial for enhanced permeability), high strength and engineered fracture toughness (for long term durability and prolonged permeabilities), and tailored crystalline phase assemblages and compositions (to resist degradation of performance via diagenetic processes.) Proppants rivaling the performance of the best commercially available synthetic proppants have been developed from a host of inexpensive raw materials such as mine tailings, gas/oil well drill cuttings, flyash, domestic glass recycling streams and low grade bauxitic ores, thereby reducing the dependence on rapidly depleting high alumina ores for synthetic proppant manufacturing, and hence offering significant manufacturing cost advantages. Scale up from laboratory synthesis through pilot plant manufacturing (tons per hour) has been demonstrated, and the technology is ready for deployment. Parallel efforts focus on proppants with engineered properties which will enable new hydraulic stimulation technologies. For example. technology for manufacturing high strength proppants with core-shell microstructures and tailored specific gravity (neutrally buoyant in fracturing fluids), have been developed which offer promise for water-less stimulation of wells combined with CO2 sequestration. Smart proppants are being developed which possess engineered electromagnetic signatures to allow magnetophoretic placement, magnetic/electrical/acoustic detection, and ability to mechanically restimulate aging wells.

Poster #20: The Marcellus Shale Impacts Study: Chronicling Social and Economic Change in Pennsylvania

K. J. Brasier, R. Chandler, L. L. Glenna, A. Hess, T. W. Kelsey, S. Monnat, K. Schafft, M. Suchyta, G. Wildermuth

Communities in the Marcellus Shale region are experiencing significant economic, social, and demographic change. These changes may include significant (but often temporary) economic and population growth. This may be welcomed in places that have experienced long-term economic stagnation and out-migration. However, rapid growth can also introduce potential disruption to the community and exacerbate or shift inequalities. Adapting to change can be difficult for people and communities, as well as affect levels of satisfaction and well-being. The Marcellus Shale Impacts Study focuses on four case study counties: two counties in the Northern Tier (Bradford and Lycoming) and two counties in Southwest Pennsylvania (Washington and Greene) to identify and describe changes in population, economic conditions, housing, public services, and government and infrastructure by level and stage of development. The project examines the effects of development on specific populations, including youth, new residents, and low-income families. This poster describes the multiple waves of research conducted, findings from this work, and identifies future research needs.

Poster #21: Enhancing the Temporal Resolution of Satellite-Based Flood Extent Generation Using Crowdsourced Data for Disaster Monitoring

G. Panteras, G. Cervone

Satellite-based disaster monitoring has been extensively and successfully used for numerous disaster crisis response and disaster impact delineation tasks until nowadays. Remote sensing satellite are routinely used data during disasters for damage assessment and to coordinate relief operations. Although there is a plethora of satellite sensors able to provide actionable data about an event, their temporal resolution is limited by the satellite revisit time and the presence of clouds. These limitations do not allow for an uninterrupted and timely sensitive monitoring, which is crucial during disasters and emergencies. This research presents an approach that leverages the increased temporal resolution of crowdsourced data to partially overcame the limitations of satellite data. The proposed approach focuses on the geostatistical analysis of Tweeter data to help delineate the flood extent on a daily basis. The crowdsourced data are used to augumentaugment satellite imagery from EO-1 ALI, Landsat 8, WorldView-2 and WorldView-3 by fusing them together to complement the satellite observations.. The proposed methodology was applied to estimate the daily flood extents in Charleston, SC, caused by hurricane Joaquin on October 2015. The results of the proposed methodology indicate that the user-generated data can be utilized adequately to both bridge the temporal gaps in the satellite-based observations and also to increase the spatial resolution of the flood extents.

Poster #22: Artificial Water Channels: Bioinspired, Energy Efficient Water Purification

Y. X. Shen, M. Kumar

Water purification is emerging as an important challenge in the 21st century, globally, and even in our own backyard with surprising instances of unsafe and scarce potable water in Milwaukee, Flint and California in recent years. Membrane-based technologies that have been extensively used to produce fresh water from seawater and to purify microbiologically and chemically contaminated water are energy intensive. Nature provides excellent examples for energy-efficient desalination and water filtration. Mangrove trees purify saline water through its root systems with minimal energy input. In cell membranes, including those in the mangrove roots, biological water channel proteins aquaporins (AQPs) conduct single channel water transport while excluding all other molecules. This mechanism has inspired me to work on the design of artificial structures that mimic AQPs and led to the exciting development of biomimetic membranes for energy-efficient desalination around these structures. Artificial water channels combine the advantages of AQPs and their analogues, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and improve upon them through their relatively simple synthesis and chemical stability. Combining the high water conductance and the high pore density of artificial water channel-based membranes, these materials are promising energy-efficient separation materials for the future.

Poster #23: The Penn State Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Radiocarbon Facility: Interdisciplinary Applications in Chronology and Materials Research

B. J. Culleton, K. Freeman, D. J. Kennett

The newly established PSU AMS Radiocarbon (14C) Facility provides high-precision measurements of 14C content in a wide range of carbon-bearing materials, with potential applications reaching beyond archaeological and paleontological dating into fields such as astrophysics, oceanic and atmospheric circulation, hydrology, forensics, art history, aerosol and hydrocarbon research, biofuels, soils science, drug enforcement, and wildlife conservation. The facility operates a NEC 1.5 SDH 500kV Tandem Pelletron accelerator optimized for relatively small samples, requiring only 700 µg of graphitized carbon, with a potential lower limit of 15 µg C, with routine precision of 20-25 14C years for samples less than 10,000 years old. Current research explores the connections between climate change and ancient Maya Collapse, the extinction of megafauna from Alaska to Madagascar, and the peopling of the Americas, and much more.

Poster #24: Computational Materials Science -- Multiscale/Mesoscale Microstructure Simulation

Dr. Chen's group

Dr. Long-qing Chen's group focuses on modeling the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations and multiscale/mesoscale microstructure evolution in bulk and thin films using multi-scale computer simulations combining the first-principles calculations and phase-field method. One can use the phase-field method to help interpreting as well as providing guidance to experiments. Our group collaborates extensively with experimentalists around the world, industries, and national labs.

Poster #25: Advanced Composites and Engineered Materials Group

J. Dai, M. P. Spencer, J. Haibat, S. Ceneviva, D. Gao, N. Yamamoto

This poster introduces the progress of research activities in the Advanced Composites and Engineered Materials Group led by Professor Namiko Yamamoto in the department of Aerospace Engineering. Our research focuses on designing and manufacturing of nano/microengineered materials for aerospace and other applications as well as understanding their fundamental behaviors. Scalable manufacturing of polymer nanocomposites using magnetic assembly: Nanofiller implementation into a polymer matrix can provide improved mechanical, electrical, thermal, and other multi-functional properties. By structuring the nanofiller, enhanced, tailored or even novel properties can be realized. Currently structuring cannot be achieved in large size and often results in non-homogenous distributions and thus poor enhancement or even degradation. An active nanofiller assembly using oscillating magnetic fields, studied in this work, can be a solution to manufacture polymer nanocomposites with ordered nanofillers in a scalable manner. Magnetic assembly and patterning behaviors of nanofillers are studied by varying parameters of nanofillers (size, shape, and concentration), magnetic fields (flux density, frequency and waveform), and matrix viscosity. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanospheres in deionized water are initially studied as a simplified case, while nickel-coated carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix are also studied for applications. The preliminary studies indicated that the low frequency range (< 1 Hz) is the key to tune inter-particle distances through the balancing between thermal diffusion and magnetic particle interactions. Study of the fracture behavior of nanoporous ceramics under contact load: With high strength, low density, corrosion resistance and thermal stability, ceramics are essential for aerospace applications involving extreme environment. However, applications of ceramics are currently limited due to their low fracture toughness. In this study, the effects of nanostructures and material morphology are evaluated on mechanical fracture of nanoporous ceramics under contact load. With introduced nanoporosity, new failure modes, namely localized pore collapse and wall breakage, have been observed with ceramics. The goal of this study is to understand why these failure modes occur and to evaluate whether they can be controlled to delay catastrophic failure through modifying parameters such as pore size, spacing and material morphology. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with highly periodic nano-porous structures are being tested using nanoindentation; the effect of pore geometry, material morphology and loading condition are being studied by comparing the resulting force-displacement curves and visual inspection of post-indentation surface and cross-sections.

Poster #26: PEALD ZnO TFTs for Integrated Electronics Applications

T. N. Jackson, Y. Gong, A. Gupta, S. Lee, T. Liu, A. Tellado, M. Tendulkar

Many applications from industrial electronics to medical devices benefit from the close integration of electronics. In most cases today the electronics is in the form of printed circuit boards populated with integrated circuits (ICs). But moving the electronic function from the boards and ICs and more directly into the application can bring advantages. Thin film electronics, extensively developed for flat panel displays, provides a path to directly integrate transistors and electronic circuits with sensors, actuators, microelectromechanical devices and more. We are developing zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film devices and circuits for such applications. Oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) offer significant performance improvement compared to hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) devices, including >10? higher field effect mobility. We have used low-temperature plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to fabricate ZnO TFTs on few micron thick solution-cast polyimide substrates. The devices use a bottom gate structure with Al2O3 gate dielectric and thin (~10 nm thick) ZnO channels, both deposited by PEALD at 200 °C. Solution cast polyimide substrates provide smooth films (few nm rms roughness) and excellent in-plane dimensional stability (ppm range) during processing on carrier substrates. PEALD ZnO TFTs fabricated on thin polyimide substrates have characteristics very similar to devices fabricated on glass, with linear region field effect mobility >10 cm2/V?s at a gate electric field of 2 MV/cm, and ion/ioff >108. Al2O3 passivated devices have excellent stability, and double-gate and tri-layer TFTs provide additional design flexibility. PEALD ZnO TFTs fabricated on thin polyimide survive tens of thousands of cycles of flexing or movement over few mm diameter rollers. PEALD ZnO TFTs are interesting core devices for flexible electronics, integration with electroceramic devices, biosensors, and more.

Poster #27: Multi-Field Responsive Origami Structures: Advancing the Emerging Frontier of Active Compliant Mechanisms

A. Erol, M. Frecker, Z. Ounaies, P. von Lockette, T. Simpson, R. Strzelec, J. Lien

The Japanese art of Origami has inspired engineering structures in recent years due to its ability to manipulate geometries via complex folding patterns. Coupled with the substantial development of smart materials in the last several decades, the self-actuation of Origami-inspired mechanisms has become a reality. The Penn State Origami EFRI team utilizes a multi-scale approach to fabricate, model, and characterize multi-field responsive Origami structures such as the waterbomb, Muira fold, frog's tongue and many others. On the microscale, smart materials are characterized and fabricated for optimal actuation via external fields such as electric and magnetic fields. The materials chosen for actuation in this project are the electro-active polymer P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE), a P(VDF)-based terpolymer, and magneto-active elastomers (MAEs), elastomers embedded with barium hexaferrite particles. Additionally, information obtained from characterization is used for microstructure-based models that couple the mechanics of each material with their corresponding actuation fields to determine constitutive functions which could be used in a macroscale deformation analysis. On higher scales, experiments are conducted to observe and measure the folding and bending of unimorphs and bimorphs in a single dimension. Unimorphs are composed of either MAEs or the terpolymer (with a constraining layer), with specific geometric features such as notches used to form better folds. The bimorphs are composed of a combination of MAEs and terpolymer layers to obtain more complex folding about a single axis. Analytical and finite element models accompany these experiments to examine varying geometries and material configurations. At the largest scale, the goal of this research aims to integrate the fabrication methods and models from the microscale, and the folding analysis in the mesoscale to construct larger, 3-dimensional origami inspired devices. At this scale, artistic inspiration guides the choice of target shapes while origami mathematics generates viable folding paths to achieve desired structures. Also at this level, dynamic models are used to simulate the kinematics of the 3D structures when actuated. Finally, across all length scales, models of microstructure dependent properties lead to predictions of deformed shapes that are integrated into a design framework optimizing performance characteristics such as material usage, target shape approximation, and actuation efficiency.

Poster #28: Whole-Organism Pan-Cellular Tissue Tomography: MicroCT as a Model for Quantitative Phenomics

S. R. Katz, Y. Ding, A. Y. Lin, X. Xin, P. La Riviere, K. C. Cheng

Phenomics uses high-throughput and in-depth phenotyping across biological systems to illuminate relationships between genes, environment, and phenotype. Our goal is to add the power of cellular pathology to phenomic studies of model organisms. Cellular pathology, the concept that characteristic changes in cell and tissue histology are correlated with disease, is used extensively in medical diagnosis and prognosis. When applied to model organism research, histologic principles such as pan-cellular imaging at high resolution can identify important phenotypes that are missed by traditional screens. However, histology is ill-suited for the high-throughput, quantitative needs of phenomics, and cannot provide full-volume data. X-ray microtomography (MicroCT) can produce high-resolution 3D images of small samples. Using zebrafish as a vertebrate model, we show that MicroCT imaging with voxel (3D pixel) resolutions < 1 um^3 make it possible to computationally generate histologic slices in any orientation as well as visualize complex structures in 3D and identify structures not seen by histology. We are developing MicroCT for high-throughput, whole-organism pan-cellular tissue tomography (PANCETTO), and designing computational tools to enable automation of phenotyping for applications in functional genomics, drug development, toxicology, and medicine.

Poster #29: Noncentrosymmetry Induced by Oxygen Octahedral Rotations Competing with Octahedral Sliding in Ruddlesden-Popper Phases, HRTiO4 (R = Rare Earths)

A. Sen Gupta, H. Akamatsu, F. G. Brown, M. A. T. Nguyen, M. E. Strayer, T. E. Mallouk, V. Gopalan

We report the detection of non-centrommetry in the family of HRTiO4 (R = rare earths) layered perovskites having a Ruddlesden-Popper structure, one formerly understood to possess center of symmetry. Symmetry breaking arises from the type of oxygen octahedral rotations, a mechanism that is not active in simple ABO3 perovskites. In addition, we discovered a competition between oxygen octahedral rotations and sliding of the octahedral perovskite blocks at the OH layers. For the smaller rare earth ions, R = Eu, Gd, Dy, which favor octahedral rotations, noncentrosymmetry is present but the sliding at the OH layer is absent. For the larger rare earth ions, R = Nd and Sm, the octahedral rotations are absent, but in order to optimize the hydrogen bonding, sliding of the octahedral blocks at the OH layers occurs. This study reveals a new improper mechanism for inducing noncentrosymmetry in layered oxides, and chemical-structural effects related to rare earth ion size and hydrogen bonding that can turn this mechanism on and off. We are also able to construct a complete phase diagram of temperature versus rare earth ionic radius for the HRTiO4 family.

Poster #30: Surface Polarity Engineering of Crystalline Nanocellulose using a Food-grade Surfactant for Improved Sustainable Biocomposites

K. Chi, J. M. Catchmark

Derived from the most abundant and renewable biopolymer, nanocelluloses have become fascinating building blocks for the design of advanced functional materials and drawn a tremendous level of attention. Many current and potential applications of nanocelluloses depend critically on the character of their surfaces. Yet, due to their hydrophilic nature, their utilization is limited to applications involving hydrophilic or polar media. Many surface modifications have been explored, but most employ chemistries which would not be acceptable from a health and safety or an environmental lifecycle standpoint. In the present study, we demonstrate a green, facile surface functionalization of crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) with food-grade cationic surfactant via ionic binding of its positively charged amine groups onto the negatively charge surface of CNC. The amount of surfactant required to coat CNC is optimized, aiming at preventing excessive addition of the surfactant and undermining the properties of the resulting composites. The presence of absorbed surfactant on the modified CNC is confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy and its effects on morphology, polarity and thermal stability of the ensuing CNC are examined. Further, the functionalized CNC is incorporated into a hydrophobic poly(lactic acid) matrix and shows better dispersion than pristine CNC. The crystallinity, mechanical and thermal properties of the composite are greatly improved with the incorporation of the modified CNC. This high performance and ecofriendly nanocomposite will expand the utilization of CNC from renewable bioresources and the practical application of bioplastics in many industries including packaging, automotive, construction and others.

Poster #31: Research at the Social, Life, and Engineering Sciences and Imaging Center

K. A. Litcofsky, X. Bai, T. Neuberger, D. Weston, M. T. Diaz

The Social, Life, and Engineering Sciences and Imaging Center (SLEIC) is dedicated to fostering cutting edge research in the social, behavioral, biological, engineering, and materials sciences where imaging methodologies play a central role. The SLEIC provides the Penn State research community with instrumentation, technological and substantive expertise, educational opportunities, and financial support for conducting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiology (EEG, ERP) experiments. Here we showcase some of the many methodologies and research areas incorporated within our community: fMRI, structural imaging, arterial spin labeling, and source modeling of fMRI and EEG data.

Poster #32: Using Volunteered Geographic Information to Estimate People's Accumulated Radiation Exposure

Y. Xin, G. Cervone

In nuclear emergencies, it is imperative to quickly identify individual life-threatening exposure to radio-nuclear particles for the purposes of warning, rescue and medical intervention. However, people's movement data in emergency situations are hard to gather. Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) produced by geo-tagged social media services, like Twitter, can provide real-time spatio-temporal data on people's movements. VGI projects such as Safecast can provide timely measurements of radiological contamination. Combining these two sources of VGI gives a better chance to assist people in need but inferring movement trajectories through discrete social media location data is a challenge. This research proposes a method to map individual mobility patterns through a Dynamic Bayesian Model based on geo-tagged tweets. The mobility patterns are combined with Safecast measurements of background radiation to estimate accumulated exposure levels for individuals. The method can potentially be used to estimate exposure to other diffusive toxic particles.

Poster #33: Accurate Prediction of Cellular Co-Translational Folding Indicates Proteins Can Switch from Post- to Co-Translational Folding

D. A. Nissley, A. K. Sharma, N. Ahmed, U. A. Friedrich, G. Kramer, B. Bukau, E. P. O'Brien

The rates at which domains fold and codons are translated are important factors in determining whether a nascent protein will co-translationally fold and function or misfold and malfunction. Here, we develop a chemical kinetic model that calculates a protein domain's co-translational folding curve during synthesis using only the domain's bulk folding and unfolding rates and codon translation rates. We show that this model accurately predicts the course of co-translational folding measured in vivo for four different protein molecules. We then make predictions for a number of different proteins in yeast and find that synonymous codon substitutions, which change translation-elongation rates, can switch some protein domains from folding post-translationally to folding co-translationally - a result consistent with previous experimental studies. Our approach explains essential features of co-translational folding curves and predicts how varying the translation rate at different codon positions along a transcript's coding sequence affects this self-assembly process.

Poster #34: Satellite Geodesy Unravels Volcanic, Magmatic and Seismic Processes

K. Wnuk, S. Moore, K. Stephens, C. Wauthier

Knowledge of the location and volume of intruded magma is key for both eruption forecasting and the interpretation of volcano structure and dynamics. Volume change and source location of magma reservoirs and pathways may be assessed through modeling of geodetically-imaged deformation sources. Modeling tools and techniques are evolving rapidly to provide much greater spatio-temporal resolution of surface deformation, as well as better insights into sub-surface processes through more mechanically robust numerical models. Volcano geodetic data are particularly valuable when combined with other independent geophysical and geochemical datasets. Here, we show example of synergistic volcano geodetic studies at Kilauea Volcano, HI, as well as at Central America Volcanoes including Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala and Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua.

Poster #35: Functional Polypropylene Dielectrics High Thermal Stability

G. Zhang, C. W. Nam, H. X. Li, T. C. Chung

Current state-of-the-art polymer film capacitors are based on biaxial oriented polypropylene (BOPP) thin films that commonly contain less than 1 wt % of the IRGANOX1010 stabilizer. BOPP capacitors are usually operated at the field <400 MV/m. Combined with a low dielectric constant (? = 2.2), BOPP based thin film capacitors can only provide consistent energy density in the range of 1-2 J/cm3. It is scientifically interesting to explore how it is possible to increase its dielectric activities (? value), long-term (oxidative and thermal) stability, and breakdown strength (E) in order to achieve higher energy density in PP-based capacitors. Also, polypropylene BOPP capacitors, with a 160oC glass transition temperature, can be only operated below 70 o. The limitation of thermal stability in BOPP dielectric stacks causes the concerns in maintaining low operational temperature under high field and high frequency conditions. We developed a new class of polypropylene copolymer (PP-HP) containing a PP backbone and various concentrations of hindered phenol (antioxidant) moieties which located in the pendant side chains. An effective synthesis route has been developed to prepare these semicrystalline PP-HP copolymers with well-controlled microstructures, including tapered and random copolymers. Evidently, these PP-HP polymeric stabilizers show the cocrystallization phenomenon with the PP homopolymer, which provides an ideal mechanism for introducing a high concentration of HP antioxidants that are homogeneously distributed and immobilized in the PP amorphous matrix. PP-HP copolymers show significantly higher thermal-oxidative stability than the pristine PP polymer and the commercial PP products that contain a small amount of organic hindered phenol stabilizers. The combination provides PP-HP copolymers and their PP-HP/PP blends with exceptionally high thermal-oxidative stability that is tunable by the incorporated HP content. This new antioxidant mechanism is particularly beneficial in the long-term protection of PP products under severe application conditions. In addition to the known advantages of polymer-bonded stabilizers, with low mobility and volatility to prevent loss through diffusion and/or extraction (particularly acute in films and coatings), the PP-HP thin dielectric films with uniform morphology show a higher dielectric constant and maintain low dielectric loss, particularly for the tapered PP-HP copolymers with high crystallinity.

Poster #36: Plasma Metamaterials

M. T. Lanagan, C. A. Randall, W. Luo, Z. Cohick, S. Antonsson, S. Perini, A. Baker

The goal of this MURI project to is develop reconfigurable high frequency metamaterial structures and photonic crystals with potential applications in imaging and remote sensing. In collaboration with Stanford University, the University of Texas, Austin, Tufts University, UCLA, and the University of Washington, Penn State researchers focus on the fundamental science necessary to develop plasma photonic crystals and plasma-embedded metamaterials that operate in the gigahertz to terahertz range. This region of the electromagnetic spectrum has potential for high speed data transmission, medical imaging and is already being used in airport surveillance and astronomy. Plasmas have been generated in dielectric and ring-resonator metamaterial arrays using radio frequency excitation with the entire device encapsulated in an inert gas. Very dense, highly ionized plasma arrays have also been generated by focused lasers using micro-lens arrays. Unlike the metal structures of typical metamaterials, a plasma's dielectric properties can be controlled by varying the plasma density; therefore, plasmas afford the possibility of controlling metamaterials at high bandwidth. This will enable such applications as antennas with beam steering, filter devices, multiplexers, phase shifters and electro-optical modulators. Researchers at Penn State are the primary team charged to develop a new class of low-loss dielectric resonators and multilayer low temperature co-fired ceramics to replace the usual metallic split-ring resonators found in traditional metamaterial structures. Metamaterials are artificial structures with sub-wavelength features that can interact with electromagnetic waves in a manner unlike that of natural materials. Long-term goals of metamaterials research include invisibility cloaking devices and perfect lenses to capture short-range light waves for sub wavelength imaging.

Poster #37: Elucidating the Effects of Lipid Structure on Metal:Ion Complexes

A. J. Baxter, A. N. Santiago Ruiz, J. S. Paschal, T. S. Yang

The effect of lipid structure on the formation of metal ion complexes with lipids has not been fully explored. By utilization of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), the Cremer Group has been able to probe the interactions of Cu2+ with lipids while varying head group structure. SLBs are two-dimensional systems containing lipids of interest as well as fluorescently labeled 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphoethanolamine (Texas-Red DHPE). This novel assay uses fluorescence microscopy to visualize the bilayer while the binding of Cu2+ causes quenching of the fluorescence via resonant energy transfer. This assay has been demonstrated with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (POPS):Cu2+ interactions in a previously reported irreversible, pH dependent manner; a new study shows binding in a density dependent manner. Conversely, it has been found that the substitution of other amine containing lipids for POPS does not lead to the same type of binding. This is curious as the arrangement of the phosphate, ester, and amine groups within the membrane appear to be important for binding. Therefore, by understanding if Cu2+ can complex with a lipid, and what factors influence the ability to bind, a lipids role in biological systems may be determined. Moreover, the use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) provides additional insight into the binding process.

Poster #38: Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Electron Gases at Surfaces of SrTiO3

L. Miao, R. Du, Y. Yin, N. Huber, J. Wang, B. Bedford, Q. Li

Transition metal oxides (TMOs), showing rich physical properties including ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, colossal magnetoresistance and superconductivity, have become a fertile playground for both fundamental physics and functional devices. Due to the complex interplay between the spin, charge, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom, their properties are sensitive to external perturbations such as magnetic and electric fields. Our group focuses on two areas of TMOs: multiferroic tunnel junctions and two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at TMO surfaces. The latter one is presented here. 2DEGs have attracted intensive attention due to their fascinating exotic properties such as gate-controlled ground states and coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism that traditional silicon based devices lack. Electron gases at the surfaces of insulating (111)- and (110)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals have been created using Ar+-irradiation and their magneto-transport properties are characterized for the first time. Fully metallic behaviors with sheet carrier density of ~ 1014 cm-2 and low-temperature-mobilities as large as 8600 cm2V-1s-1 are obtained. Intrinsic in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) has been obtained by applying current along different crystal axes to subtract the Lorentz force effect. The results yield nearly 6-fold and 2-fold components for the (111)-and (110)-surfaces. A novel symmetry breaking in AMR for the (111)-surfaces with ordering temperature TO ~ 30 K is also observed. In contrast, the out-of-plane AMR does not show anisotropy associated with crystal axes, suggesting a two-dimensional nature of the effect. In addition, we demonstrate that the gate controlled transport properties of these electron gases also reflect the reconstructed Ti t2g orbital structures. As indicated by non-linear Hall effects, these surfaces involve multiple t2g orbitals, a consequence of degeneracy lifting. By applying voltage bias across the surface and a back gate electrode, selective orbital occupancy is realized. AMR for STO surfaces with various orientations convey the structures of selected orbitals. These results reveal the origin of anisotropic magnetotransport in electron gases at STO surfaces and demonstrate that electron gases at (111)- and (110)-oriented STO surfaces are a good playground for both fundamental research and all-oxide device applications.

Poster #39: Using Mechanical Properties as Biomarkers for Musculosketal Tissues Injuries and Diseases

D. Akbarian, S. Rothenberger, D. Cortes

The research conducted at the Biomechanics and Imaging Lab is focused on developing and applying clinical tools to evaluate the health of orthopaedic tissues, elucidate mechanisms of disease progression, and quantify the effectiveness of treatments for different pathologies. To develop these tools, We are combining tissue biomechanics and medical imaging. Our research program is aimed to bridge the gap between experimental and clinical biomechanics. Orthopedic tissues transmit loads and allow relative motion between different parts of the body. To accomplish these tasks, they have distinctive compositions, structures and mechanical properties. However, during disease or injury, these compositions and structures are disrupted. Restoring the integrity of the affected tissues is the aim of clinical treatments, but the original tissue function is not usually recovered. The mechanical properties of injured or diseased orthopedic tissues are weaker and typically lead to disability and pain. Currently, clinicians evaluate the recovery progress of these tissues by using patient feedback and ultrasound or magnetic resonance images that show only the overall geometry of the tissue. Clinical tools that evaluate the mechanical integrity of these tissues are not yet available. Although researchers have spent decades studying the structure-function relationship of orthopedic tissues, mainly through in-vitro experiments or animal models, only a fraction of this knowledge has been applied to clinical practice. A possible reason for this disconnect lies in the lack of non-invasive methods to measure the mechanical properties of soft orthopedic tissues in-vivo. To develop these clinical tools, We are combining two areas: tissue biomechanics and medical imaging. In the area of tissue biomechanics, We are using in-vitro dynamic and wave propagation tests to elucidate the relationships between structure and function of orthopaedic tissues. In the area of medical imaging, We are developing techniques to measure mechanical and structural properties of orthopedic tissues in-vivo. These two areas are complementary. Knowledge of the structure-function relationships is necessary for understanding and interpreting the non-invasive measurements of mechanical properties. Correspondingly, non-invasive measurements of mechanical properties during disease progression or during healing will reveal the mechanisms that cause changes in tissue composition and structure. This approach will provide powerful tools to elucidate the etiology of degenerative disorders, to diagnose and localize damaged or injured tissues, and to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical treatments. We are applying this approach to three clinical problems: intervertebral disc degeneration, tendon healing and remodeling, and osteoarthritis.

Poster #40: Well to Wheels Liquefied Natural Gas Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis

R. Brunner, M. Frank, G. Keel, S. Ling, S. Mathur

A comparative analysis of the supply chains for liquefied natural gas and diesel locomotives fuels relative to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The research evaluates the level of GHG emissions associated with each fuel's consumption that would result in the two fuels being emissions neutral.

Poster #41: Novel Metasurface Devices

X. Ni

Metamaterials, or artificially engineered, subwavelength-scale structures, allow us to control the behavior of electromagnetic, acoustic, or thermal fields with flexibility and performance that are unattainable with naturally available materials. Their two-dimensional counterparts - metasurfaces extend these capabilities even further. Optical metasurfaces offer fascinating possibilities of controlling light with surface-confined flat components which can manipulate the phase and amplitude of light directly. Many new physics and unparalleled applications have been demonstrated using metasurfaces such as steering the light to an arbitrary direction, generating optical vortex beams, and enhancing the optical spin-orbit interaction. This talk will highlight some recent developments on the metasurface which lead to several novel photonic devices such as ultrathin planar micro-lenses, high-resolution holograms, photon-spin detectors, and invisibility skin cloaks.

Poster #42: Tailoring Carbons from Biomass Precursors for Capacitive Deionization of Brackish Water

A. Sengupta, R. Rajagopalan, K. Mehta, K. Adu, R. L. Vander Wal

Irrigation water for agriculture is one of the major water demands in many African countries, made acute by water scarcity. An emerging solution are tailored, affordable greenhouses. Their implementation has significantly reduced water use per crop cycle in Kenya, Cameroon, Mozambique and Sierra Leone. Yet even a few gallons per day per greenhouse is challenging because many local groundwater sources are brackish. Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a sustainable, energy efficient, and cost effective technology for treating brackish water. It is energy efficiency and cost effective for low to moderate salinity water. Compared to technologies that remove the water such as distillation, CDI remove the salt from the water. The porous carbon electrodes can be easily produced from local plant-based agricultural waste materials. Such performance and feedstock advantage have prompted their study for CDI. Yet no relationship has emerged for the carbon between its CDI performance and its biomass precursor properties and formation conditions. Therein the goal of this study is to identify process conditions for locally sourced biomass to enable the best performance as electrode material in CDI. A laboratory scale prototype of a CDI cell has been manufactured for testing the biomass derived carbon materials. To-date carbons have been produced from locally sourced switchgrass using different processing conditions of pretreatment of the biomass and concurrent or sequential carbonization/activation steps in a furnace with requisite gas environment. These carbons are compared against standard carbons (commercial or laboratory) for their CDI performance (charge efficiency, salt adsorption capacity, regeneration efficiency) as well as the surface characteristics to determine the relationship between the processing conditions and CDI performance.

Poster #43: Molecular Binding-Induced Chemotaxis

S. Deng, A. Sendecki, T. Yang, P. Cremer

Chemotaxis is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus. Somatic cells, bacteria, and other single- or multi-cellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (e.g., glucose) by swimming toward the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons (e.g., phenol). The chemotactic behaviors of cells and bacteria are essentially a result of an ensemble of signal transductions via molecular binding and catalysis. If such phenomenon would be found to occur at molecular level, one may comprehend the above at a much more basic and general perspective; on the other hand, catch biomimetic insight of common chemical reactions. Although chemotactic behaviors of enzymes and their nanoassemblies have been reported, which were claimed to be attributed to "continuously enhanced diffusion in local environment"; however, the conformational change of biomolecules and the so-called "momentum" or "impulse" effect during catalytic reactions complicated the controversial issue, which might be clarified by figuring out a much more simplified system at sub-nanoscale. Herein, we fabricated a simplified system in which zinc porphyrin acted as the receptor while imidazole as the ligand. The binding interaction between the two mimics the axial ligation inside natural enzymes just like histidine-terminated proximal peptide towards the cofactor heme of hemoglobin. Their diffusing tendency was realized in a 3-way microfluidic channel, in which one would observe that the migration enhanced as the increase of imidazole concentration, and accessed to a plateau where the turning point denoted KD. Overall, the apparent enhanced diffusion of this system should actually be ascribed to the binding between ZnTSPP and N-ligand, which demonstrated that mere binding could induce the chemotaxis. This work indeed testified that whether the chemotaxis of small molecules would be one of those incentives and migrational manners in chemical reaction kinetics.

Poster #44: Effect of Secondary Phases and Morphology on Cold Spray Particle Impact

J. Schreiber, I. Smid, T. J. Eden

Finite element modeling of high-strain-rate effects using material models such as the simple curve-fit Johnson-Cook constitutive material model or the thermodynamically based Preston-Tonks-Wallace model have become an important area of materials research. Some of these material models are now built-in to commercial finite element software packages. The cold spray process is an area where high-strain-rate modeling has been useful in understanding the particle impact event. During aluminum cold spray deposition, the effect of particle heat treatment has an effect on deposition efficiency and mechanical properties due to precipitation of secondary phases. The presence and structure of secondary phases that precipitate during powder processing may control this behavior. Modeling of a single particle cold spray impact is being conducted to see the effect of secondary phases on the deformation and stress distributions throughout the particle. Effects of phase size and morphology are investigated using a finite element model.

Poster #45: Probing the Orientation of Polymer Thin Films Using Spectroscopic Techniques

T. J. Zimudzi

The orientation of Nafion thin films on electrodes can affect the activity of fuel cell catalyst layers and hence overall fuel cell performance. In this study the ordering of Nafion films of various thicknesses was investigated on gold and silicon substrates. The influence of Nafion film thickness on the infrared spectrum of the polymer was investigated in substrate overlayer attenuated total reflection (SO-ATR) geometry at incident angles between 60° and 65°. In SOATR geometry, the thickness of the film significantly affected the position and absorbance of characteristic peaks in Nafion infrared spectrum. As the thickness of the film decreased from 250 nm to 5 nm, the convoluted vas(CF2) and vas (SO3-) peak at 1220 cm-1 systematically blueshifted to 1256 cm-1. The same phenomenon was observed with the predominantly vas(CF2) peak at 1150 cm-1 which shifted to 1170 cm-1. Changes in the Nafion thin film FTIR spectrum can be ascribed to ordering of Nafion at the interface during spin coating (film formation) and the increase in the p-polarization character of the infrared evanescent wave as the polymer film became thinner between the ATR element and the film substrate overlayer. An increase in p-polarization due to the overlayer enhancement of the electric field in the Nafion film resulted in the increase in characteristic peak absorbance of dipoles aligned normal to the substrate. These results demonstrate that the specific thin film sampling geometry, especially in reflection experiments, must be considered to rationally quantify changes in polymer thin film structure. We evaluated the optical anisotropy of Nafion polymer thin films on gold, platinum, SiO2. The thickness- and substrate-dependent birefringence was measured on Nafion films with thicknesses between 12 nm and 270 nm. Nafion-coated metal substrates exhibited a parallel orientation with increasing anisotropy as the thickness was decreased from 240 nm to 35 nm followed by a rapid transition to an optically isotropic film for samples with thickness below 35 nm. Nafion-coated SiO2 substrates exhibited a partially parallel orientation throughout the measured thickness range. The molecular orientations were related to nanostructural anisotropy analysis using X-ray scattering patterns of Nafion films prepared on gold and silicon substrates

Poster #46: Deletion of CTNNB1 in Inhibitory Circuitry Contributes to Autism-Associated Behavioral Defects

F. Dong, J. Jiang, C. McSweeny, D. Zou, L. Liu, Y. Mao

Mutations in ß-catenin (CTNNB1) have been implicated in cancer and mental disorders. Recently, loss-of-function mutations of CTNNB1 were linked to intellectual disability (ID), and rare mutations were identified in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As a key regulator of the canonical Wnt pathway, CTNNB1 has an essential role in neurodevelopment. However, the function of CTNNB1 in specific neuronal subtypes is unclear. To understand how CTNNB1 deficiency contributes to ASD, we generated CTNNB1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice in parvalbumin interneurons. The cKO mice had increased anxiety, but had no overall change in motor function. Interestingly, CTNNB1 cKO in PV-interneurons significantly impaired object recognition and social interactions and elevated repetitive behaviors, which mimic the core symptoms of patients with ASD. Surprisingly, deleting CTNNB1 in parvalbumin-interneurons enhanced spatial memory. To determine the effect of CTNNB1 KO in overall neuronal activity, we found that c-Fos was significantly reduced in the cortex, but not in the dentate gyrus and the amygdala. Our findings revealed a cell type-specific role of CTNNB1 gene in regulation of cognitive and autistic-like behaviors. Thus, this study has important implications for development of therapies for ASDs carrying the CTNNB1 mutation or other ASDs that are associated with mutations in the Wnt pathway. In addition, our study contributes to a broader understanding of the regulation of the inhibitory circuitry.

Poster #47: A 64-Channel Wireless Implantable System-on-Chip for Gastric Electrical-Wave Recording

A. Ibrahim, M. Kiani

This poster presents the design and post-layout simulation results of a 64-channel wireless and implantable system-on-chip (SoC) for studying gastric electrophysiology. The SoC includes 64 time-multiplexed low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) followed by a 10-bit low-power successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a power management unit for recharging the SoC battery inductively and communicating with an external reader via load-shift keying (LSK) modulation of the receiver coil. The SoC has been designed in a 0.35 µm standard CMOS process, occupying 25 mm2. In post-layout simulations, each LNA achieved an adjustable gain of 40-52 dB, and an input-referred noise of 6 µVrms within the bandwidth of 10 mHz - 2 Hz while consuming 40 nA from a single 2.5 V supply. Each channel was sampled at 244 Hz with 10 bits of resolution, leading to the net data rate of 156 kbps for recording 64 channels. The power management, operating at 13.56 MHz, recharged a 3.7 V battery with the adjustable current range of 0-15 mA while maintaining the rectifier voltage constant at 4.4 V.

Poster #48: Addressing Issues Associated with Evaluating Prediction Models for Survival Endpoints Based on the Concordance Statistic

M. Wang, Q. Long

Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy are assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

Poster #49: Artificial Intelligence and Forcasting for Higher Education

D. C. Wham

Elements of applied statistics and computer science are quickly integrating and being applied to a diverse set of problems in academia and industry. Here I explore the potential value of this multi-disciplinary approach to applications in higher education. Utilizing hundreds of data sources on individual students, ranging from past performance to current course engagement, I demonstrate the potential accuracy of forecasting techniques at identifying high risk students early in the course term. I then explore the potential utility of these predictions which range from better utilization of intervention strategies that are already in place, to better course sequencing recommendations from advisors.

Poster #50: Cheap = $mart (Not Disposable): Three Decades in Low-cost Bioreactor Design

E. R. Lennox, K. Sreenivas, M. E. Shires, T. S. Lai, W. R. Curtis

Over the past three decades, CurtisLab (Dept. of Chemical Engineering) has developed low-cost bioreactors and optimized scale-up across an array of disciplines with organisms ranging from classics like E. coli, yeast, CHO, and HeLa to the atypical: phototrophs, anaerobes, syngas-fermentors, methanogens, etc. Often working in plant biotechnology applications in which profits are marginal, the evolution of CurtisLab bioreactor designs converged upon cheap (rather than merely disposable) and continuous bioprocessing. CurtisLab's latest installment, a manual Hydrostatically-driven Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (Hy-TIB), showcases low-cost design for propagation of orphan crops (e.g. yam, cassava, banana) towards greater food and income security in Africa.

Poster #51: Improving Bulk Ceramic Properties Through Sintering and Microstructure Tailoring

G. L. Messing, E. R. Kupp, Y. Chang, N. Pulati, T. Frueh, B. Watson, M. Brova, R. Walton, K.-H. Lee

The properties of ceramic materials are determined by their microstructure, e.g. grain size, grain shape, crystallographic orientation of the grains, and interfaces between the grains. The Messing group studies the relationship between processing and microstructural development in bulk ceramics to create materials with improved properties. We investigate the sintering process to develop a fundamental understanding of interface processes and responsible mechanisms for densification and microstructure evolution. This knowledge is then applied in a variety of ceramic systems to tailor the sintering process to obtain microstructures with improved, unique properties unavailable in traditionally processed ceramics and single crystals. Templated grain growth is a process that was developed by the group to produce textured ceramics with enhanced properties by controlling grain growth and crystallographic orientation of the single grains in the bulk ceramic. This technology is now applied to develop highly textured piezoelectrics with significantly improved properties compared to conventional ceramics. Advanced forming techniques such as co-casting are applied to produce microstructural composites, i.e. bulk ceramics with different microstructures in different regions of the material, which feature superior mechanical properties for structural applications. Cold Sintering is a new, revolutionary method that enables the densification of ceramics at temperatures hundreds, or even thousands, of degrees below the temperatures conventionally required for densification. The group investigates the parameters and properties of different ceramic systems controlling this cold sintering process to gain insight into the densification mechanisms and to develop a fundamental understanding of the cold sintering process, which is necessary to make it viable for different ceramic systems.

Poster #52: Porous Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors

A. R. Aref, A. Sengupta, S.-W. Chen, M. R. Hashim, M. T. Lanagan, C. A. Randall, R. Rajagopalan

Hierarchical porous carbon with controlled micro- and mesoporosity were derived from pyrolysis and activation of polymer precursors. The use of these carbons has allowed to significantly improve the energy and power density of electrochemical capacitors made using organic electrolytes, ionic liquid as well as lithium ion capacitors. The poster will provide an overview of our efforts in controlling the textural properties of carbon as well as their impact in the design of high energy density electrochemical capacitors

Poster #53: Synthesis of Large Single Crystal CGS Zeolite Using a Silica Glass Reactant

D. E. W. Vaughan, H. P. Yannawar

The CGS zeolite is primarily a potassium gallo-silicate structure built from chains of linked broken hexagonal prisms to form a structure having interconnected 10-rings and 8-rings. Previous structure studies used powder material (thin laths about 10-µm long) or large single crystals of (Co, Zn)-gallium phosphate analogues. We modified a method used to make large single crystal FAU and used silica glass tubes as a slow release silica source to synthesize gallosilicate CGS crystals up to 800 µm long. Wet chemical analysis gave a composition: K2O; Ga2O3; 2.207 SiO2, and is typical for previous CGS analyses. Chemical analyses and NMR experiments indicated no occlusion of C or N indicative of trapped templates. Single crystal structure analysis was refined in Pnma with cell constants ; a = 8.6487(9)Å, b = 14.0629(14)Å, c = 16.3492(16)Å, α = ß = Γ = 90°; volume = 1988.5(3)Å3, and R1=9.5.

Poster #54: Functional Materials from Layered Inorganic Solids

M. E. Strayer, N. I. Kovtyukhova, M. A. T. Nguyen, A. Sen Gupta, X. Fan, P. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Akamatsu, R. Uppuluri, A. Rosas, T. Senftle, J. Binz, V. Gopalan, M. Terrones, V. H. Crespi, R. M. Rioux, M. Janik, J. Zhu, T. E. Mallouk

Layered solids -- which have strong bonds in two dimensions and weaker links in the third -- are interesting building blocks for materials and devices because they potentially offer control over structure at the molecular level. Our research in this area began with the question of whether such compounds could be built up one layer at a time in controlled sequences on surfaces. This was possible by using either molecular precursors, in the case of metal phosphonates, or exfoliated sheets derived from lamellar microcrystals. Many layered oxides consist of negatively charged sheets interleaved by exchangeable cations. These oxides are particularly amenable to exfoliation (and to other topochemical reactions) by simple ion-exchange and acid-base reactions. Recently we have found that van der Waals solids such as graphite, hexagonal BN, and MoS2 can also be intercalated and exfoliated without incurring damage to the sheets by means of acid-base and redox reactions. An interesting consequence of the layer-by-layer assembly processes is the overcompensation of the surface charge of nanosheets. This effect can be exploited to invert the layer charge of nanosheets (which is typically negative for sheets derived from early transition metal oxides) and enable the intercalation of negatively charged molecules and nanoparticles. While studying these reactions, we observed surprisingly strong bonding between late transition metal oxide nanoparticles and early transition metal oxide nanosheets. Calorimetric measurements and electronic structure calculations suggest that d-acid/base interactions -- originally proposed by Leo Brewer to explain the anomalous stability of early-late transition metal alloys -- contribute to the strength of nanoparticle/nanosheet covalent bonding. This finding helps us understand the strong metal support interaction (SMSI) in catalysis and provides a prescription for stabilizing catalytically active late transition metal nanoparticles.

Poster #55: Managing Emotional Responses to the Perceived Threat of Zika

J. P. Dillard, C. Yang, R. Li

Health experts have noted that "widespread fear [of contagious disease] can lead to social and economic consequences as severe as the disease itself" (Lancet, 2005, p. 1751). Understanding how individuals manage their emotional responses may enable the development of strategies for containing the secondary effects of epidemics and natural disasters. Accordingly, this study focused on fear reactions to the perceived threat of the Zika virus among 561 women of child-bearing age living in the southern portion of the United States. A survey was administered in February of 2016 and again in March to address three related research questions. The first focused on assessments of threat and fear. On average, members of the sample estimated the likelihood of a Zika epidemic in the next year at 36%. The vast majority (88%) reported experiencing some degree of fear. The second research question emphasized methods of managing their fear. Avoidance (e.g., "I actively avoided news about Zika") was practiced by 15% of the sample whereas 39% reported using reappraisal (e.g., "I reminded myself to accept that which I cannot change"), 22% used suppression (e.g., "I tried to tamp down my thoughts about Zika"), and 32% depended on contesting (e.g., "I reminded myself that people are making too big a deal out of Zika"). The third research question asked about the effectiveness of these management strategies. Regression analysis using wave 1 strategies to predict wave 2 fear responses showed that neither avoidance nor reappraisal were associated with fear (ßs = .01 and -.02, ns, respectively). Suppression had a counter-productive effect such that persons who used this strategy experienced higher levels of fear (ß = .25, p < .05). Only contesting functioned to effectively down-regulate fear (ß = -.13, p < .05). Overall the findings indicate that women in the sample do feel threatened by Zika, that they are making efforts to manage their fear, but that most strategies for doing so are ineffective. Although contesting is effective, it involves active denial of the threat, which other research shows will decrease the likelihood of taking action to counter the threat when such actions are available. Implications for management of "widespread fear" are not favorable.

Poster #56: The Clinical Research Center at Penn State University

D. Bagshaw, T. Allen, S. McHale

The Clinical Research Center (CRC) at Penn State, funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) and the Colleges of Health & Human Development and Medicine has locations at both the University Park and Hershey campuses where trained medical staff are available to support and assist investigators involved in human clinical research. The CRC medical staff includes, MDs, nurse clinicians, RNs, and bionutritionist/RDs who assist with planning and implementation of study protocols and have extensive experience in a variety of clinical research areas. Along with inpatient and outpatient rooms, exam rooms, consultation space, a metabolic kitchen and dining area, the CRC also offers specialized equipment and testing, including, for example, access to DEXAs, treadmill and ultrasound testing, vascular assessments, IV and BP monitoring and drug infusion setups. Recent study protocols have included intense, inpatient sleep studies with full 24/7 monitoring, studies including adipose tissue and tongue biopsies, specialized diet controlled feeding studies, vascular flow-mediated dilation assessments, fetal growth ultrasound monitoring, DEXA testing for various bone parameters, IV infusions of study drugs, as well as study population recruitment and screening. On the University Park campus, the CRC works closely with the Social, Life and Engineering Imaging Center (SLEIC) when protocols call for MRI/f-MRI, EEG or ERP imaging. The nursing staff also works with investigators in their labs when participants need to remain in specialized environments such as the Smoking Behavior Research Facility. The CRC operates on a fee-for service model. Budgets can be developed to aid in grants submission process. The poster for Penn State Research Day will include an overview of the facilities, complete list of equipment, and examples of research that are conducted at the CRC.

Poster #57: IRG4: Multicomponent Assemblies for Collective Function

C. Keating, T. Mayer, L.-Q. Chen, D. Christodoulides, K. Fichthorn, Z. Liu, M. Rechtsman, R. E. Schaak, D. Werner, S. Boehm, N. Burrows, P. Donahue, N. Famularo, L. Kang, X. Kong, L. Lin, N. Nye, X. Li, Y. Shi, T. Yue, C. Zhang

IRG4 seeks to understand and control the organization of particle mixtures to generate photonic and electronic architectures in which non-additive functions are imparted by the collective properties of the array. Co-assemblies incorporate multiple, distinct particle populations that vary in composition and consequently in their response to various directed self-assembly approaches. Learning how to achieve desired assembly outcomes despite these differences, and to find ways to take advantage of them for increased control, will set the stage for a new era of nanomaterial-enabled device applications. We are investigating three general classes of multicomponent assemblies that incorporate new types of functional particles and span a wide range of organizational ordering schemes: (1) well-ordered arrays with single-particle positioning relative to underlying electrical contacts for fundamental studies of bioinspired synchronization in electronic oscillator networks; (2) arrays with intermediate order that will collectively define the spatial refractive index profile to manipulate light in new ways; (3) disordered assemblies of scattering particles to advance understanding of "random" photonics, with a focus on lasing and nonlinear wave mixing.

Poster #58: Human Factors in a Rapidly Changing World

A. Freivalds, S. Miller, L. Rothrock, C. Tucker

The Human Factors Group at Penn State University is well-equipped to compete in a rapidly changing world. The group is focused on humans in terms of cognitive and physical ergonomics and how they interact within complex systems. Currently, the group is engaged in transformative research in healthcare, food and the environment, and energy. It consists of Drs. Andy Freivalds (Prof of Industrial Engineering), Scarlett Miller (Asst Prof of SEDTAPP and Industrial Engineering), Ling Rothrock (Prof of Industrial Engineering) and Conrad Tucker (Asst Prof of SEDTAPP, Industrial Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering). Dr. Freivalds is conducting research in food harvesting and the office worker health through workplace exercises. Dr. Miller is focusing on the design of tools to enhance creativity as well as designing innovative medical devices to assist physicians. Dr. Rothrock is seeking to understand operator awareness in highly automated plants in which humans serve as supervisory controllers. Dr. Tucker's research focuses on the design and optimization of complex systems and intelligent assistive technologies through the acquisition, integration and mining of large-scale data. Select research profiles of the HF Group are shown below. Workplace Exercise Devices (Freivalds) The prevalence of obesity in the US has more than doubled, from 15% to 36%, since the 1970s. Part of the problem has been the progressive decline in work-related energy expenditure, with increased computer automation. Small, inexpensive, under-the-desk pedaling devices are currently available and is suitable in an office setting. Initial findings suggest that pedaling did not have significant effect on reading comprehension, but had significant effect on typing performance. Bridging Research in Innovation, Technology and Engineering Laboratory -- britelab (Miller) The britelab is a research group devoted to bridging research in innovation, technology and engineering. They view design as both a process and a product. As such, the britelab explores ways to support the design process, particularly the early phases of design, with new technologies and also explores how to develop innovative consumer products using user-centered design techniques. Their projects have spanned several exciting research areas including creativity support tools, design cognition and fixation, and medical product design. Design Analysis Technology Advancement Laboratory -- D.A.T.A (Tucker) Three characteristics of engineered systems and intelligent assistive technologies that Dr. Tucker's research group explores are: i) the ability to sense an environment, ii) the ability to characterize relevant system attributes, and iii) the ability to learn and predict future states that aid decision makers. Dr. Tucker's research group has utilized social media platforms to capture user-generated content that subsequently serves as input to the design of next generation products and systems.

Poster #59: CsrA Represses Translation of pmp (PNPase) at 37°C but Activates Its Expression Under Cold Shock Conditions

H. Park, H. Yakhnin, M. Connolly, T. Romeo, P. Babitzke

Csr is a conserved global regulatory system that represses or activates gene expression post-transcriptionally. CsrA of Escherichia coli is a small homodimeric RNA binding protein that regulates transcription elongation, translation initiation and mRNA stability by binding to multiple sites within the 5' untranslated leader region and/or initial coding sequence of target mRNAs. pnp mRNA, encoding the 3' to 5' exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), was previously identified as a CsrA target by RNA-seq. Previous studies also demonstrated that ribonuclease III (RNase III) and PNPase participate in a pnp autoregulatory mechanism in which RNase III cleavage of the untranslated leader, followed by PNPase degradation of the resulting 5' fragment, leads to pnp repression by an undefined mechanism. We determined that CsrA binds to two sites in pnp leader RNA, but only after the transcript is fully processed by RNase III and PNPase. In the absence of processing both of the binding sites are sequestered in RNA secondary structure, which prevents CsrA binding. The CsrA dimer bridges the upstream high-affinity site to the downstream site that overlaps the pnp Shine-Dalgarno sequence such that bound CsrA causes strong repression of pnp translation at 37 °C. Interestingly, we observed an opposite effect of CsrA under cold shock conditions. At 16 °C CsrA activates pnp expression without appreciably changing the stability of the mRNA. CsrA-mediated activation requires fully processed leader mRNA, but surprisingly only requires the downstream binding site that overlaps the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Although CsrA has been shown to regulate expression of numerous genes in a variety of organisms, this is the first identified example in which CsrA is capable of activating or repressing expression of the same gene in response to an environmental signal.

Poster #60: Microwave Materials Processing for Energy and Environmental Savings

T. M. Slawecki, J. Cheng, D. K. Agrawal

Microwaves can be used in the industrial sector to significantly reduce the time and energy required to process many different kinds of materials. Often there is correspondingly less material waste and fewer pollutants leading to reduced impact on the environment. Superior properties resulting from microwave processing translate into greater product life expectancy. Examples will be presented pertinent to the manufacturing and recycling sectors.

Poster #61: Low-Temperature Plasma for Biomedical Applications: The Exciting Potential of 'Plasma Medicine'

S. D. Knecht, S. G. Bilen, M. M. Micci

The Penn State Low-Temperature Plasma Research Group is presently investigating several of the many applications of atmospheric pressure plasma discharges including biomedical interactions, aerospace applications and materials science. Low-temperature plasma (LTP) science and engineering is an expanding and dynamic field of investigation that utilizes ionized fluid (plasma) at high ambient pressures (approx 1 bar) to generate complex plasma-induced chemistry at near ambient temperature. One of the most exciting areas is in the medical field, a research area referred to as 'plasma medicine', that has demonstrated potential in a wide range of external and in-vitro experiments. Our group is actively pursuing multiple projects in this field including cancer treatment and eradication of infectious bacteria on medical instruments and devices, with future plans to begin investigating the possibility for plasma treatment of internal health conditions in the digestive and respiratory tracts. LTP can be generated in a variety of different geometries, including cylindrical plasma jets and planar surface dielectric barrier discharges, and in different mediums, including ambient air, liquids such as water, or with noble gas initiators such as helium or argon. In all cases, two conducting electrodes separated by some distance are used, one is biased to zero volts (ground) and the other is biased to a high voltage potential (multiple kV). The voltage potential produces an electric field that accelerates free electrons up to high kinetic energy. Electron collisions with neutral atoms and molecules (molecular oxygen and nitrogen in an air environment) produce additional electrons through ionization and radical atomic and molecular species through dissociation collisions. Placing a dielectric material on one or both of the electrodes precludes the development of an arc discharge plasma that would drive significant current and increase the gas temperature. The driven currents are thus very small (mA's) with temperatures near the ambient temperature of the environment. The exciting potential of LTP, particularly in the medical field, comes from a combination of unique attributes: 1) Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) for biocidal effects; 2) ""Dry"" chemistry without the use of liquid solvents or disinfectants; 3) Low gas temperature which prevents thermal damage to surfaces both inorganic and living. Our research group has been demonstrating the potential uses of LTP in areas such as the destruction of metastatic breast cancer cells and bacteria such as E. coli with plans to extend this work to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and beyond. Our collaborators include faculty from the Hershey Medical Center, the Huck Institute for Life Sciences and the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. We look forward to the potential for more collaborations, particularly with industry.

Poster #62: Better Membranes Inspired by Biology

Y. X. Shen, T. W. Ren, H. M. Feroz, P. O. Saboe, R. Guha, A. B. Schantz, B. Y. Xiong, J. Habel, M. Farell, T. Culp, M. Kumar

Membranes are rapidly becoming a widely used platform for industrial separations and are being considered for applications involving catalysis and sensing. Biological membranes are an ideal model for synthetic membranes as they possess unique properties such as high transport and high selectivity at levels far beyond what is achievable in current membrane based systems. In this talk we will discuss the Kumar lab's approach and results from their Study, Play, and Build approach to innovating in the area of biomimetic and bioinspired membranes. It will present discoveries we have made while studying proteins that sit in the cell membrane (membrane proteins), our findings while playing with mixing and matching membrane proteins with matrix materials such as lipids and block copolymers, and finally building and modifying close-to- practical membranes using ideas inspired by cell membranes and informed by the Study and the Play phases.

Poster #63: A Deployable Energy and Environmental Sustainably Laboratory

D. M. Eissenstat, T. S. Adams, S. B. Brantley

A new deployable facility has been established that includes multiple instruments that can be used in a field capacity. The equipment purchased in the past year support disciplines in hydrogeology, meteorology and ecology. We will describe the various instruments, including the kinds of science that are possible using the different instruments.

Poster #64: The Dream Program at the Survey Research Center

E. L. Locke

The DREAM program (Dynamic Real-time Ecological Ambulatory Methodologies) at the Survey Research Center provides support for innovative survey, opinion, and related data collection methods to assess ongoing behavior, experiences, physiology, and environmental factors in people's natural settings. DREAM supports intensive in-vivo data collection that allows for repeated assessment of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in a natural environment (e.g., at home, at work). We develop customized native survey applications designed for Android phones and tablets and support other emerging mobile technologies used in real-time data capture. DREAM provides an effective way to gather many types of data such as: Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), Experience Sampling, or Daily Diaries ; Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI) ; Ambulatory physiological monitoring (e.g., heart rate, respiration, etc.) ; Physical activity monitoring using integrated or external GPS. The survey research field is ever evolving and mobile technologies such as smartphones, wearable sensors, and ambulatory physiological monitoring devices have greatly improved the scope and ease of data collection. Mobile data collection methodologies are especially useful to gain detailed information from and/or on individuals, particularly where it is useful to collect such information over time (e.g., to track changes, responses to policies, events, etc.). DREAM surveys can be designed to collect custom content data at nearly any desired time scale to help you meet specific goals and use cases.

Poster #65: Glass Surface Science and Tribology

N. S. Sheth, J. Luo, X. He, J. Banerjee, C. Pantano, S. H. Kim

The ubiquity of silicate glass in forms ranging from commodities to nuclear waste storage media can be attributed to its desirable mechanical properties, chemical durability, low cost, and recyclability. Although glass is theoretically strong, surface defects significantly reduce its practical strength. Furthermore, environmental factors such as humidity affect the fracture strength. The degradation of mechanical strength causes lower production yields coupled with durability and safety concerns. To increase the practical strength of glass, it is crucial to understand factors affecting surface defect formation and fracture behavior. Modern theory views defect formation as a series of chemical bond dissociation events creating thermodynamically unstable sites on the glass surface. These unstable sites are detrimental to the mechanical and chemical durability of glass. Thus it is imperative to understand the nature of these chemically reactive surface sites, which depend on the glass composition, in order to control the formation of atomic-scale coordination defects, strained bonds and their effects on mechanical properties. By understanding the chemical nature of the glass surface, the intrinsic mechanical responses can be improved and in cases where coatings are needed, a more stable interface can be engineered. Understanding surface reactivity, improving the practical strength and increasing the durability of glass can result in the minimization of glass safety hazards and glass waste while promoting greater sustainability and material functionality. Another research area of our lab is tribology and mechanochemistry. No matter how small devices are, all moving parts need to be lubricated. Otherwise, the nano- and micro-scale devices eventually fail due to adhesion and friction. We are currently exploring the use of gas adsorption isotherms for continuous formation and replenishment of nanofilms of lubricating molecules on the surface of metals and semiconductors. During vapor phase lubrication (VPL), molecules adsorbed at the sliding solid-solid interface might undergo mechanochemical reactions under high contact pressure and frictional shear force. In mechanochemical reactions, the main drive for chemical reaction is mechanical energy, rather than thermal or photochemical origins. Under mechanical compression or shear, the potential energy surface of molecules may be distorted and the energy barrier lowered along a reaction coordinate, expediting or allowing chemical reactions that would not occur under thermal or photochemical conditions. The dependence of tribo-polymerization yield on applied load and adsorbate molecular structure was studied to obtain mechanistic insights into mechanochemical reactions at the tribological interface. The tribo-polymer film synthesized in situ at the sliding interface exhibited an excellent boundary lubrication effect in the absence of any external supply of lubricant molecules.

Poster #66: Symmetry reCAPTCHA

C. Funk, Y. Liu

This paper is a reaction to the poor performance of symmetry detection algorithms on real-world images, bench-marked since CVPR 2011. Our systematic study reveals significant difference between human labeled (reflection and rotation) symmetries on photos and the output of computer vision algorithms on the same photo set. We exploit this human-machine symmetry perception gap by proposing a novel symmetry-based Turing test. By leveraging a comprehensive user interface, we collected more than 78,000 symmetry labels from 400 Amazon Mechanical Turk raters on 1,200 photos from the Microsoft COCO dataset. Using a set of ground-truth symmetries automatically generated from noisy human labels, the effectiveness of our work is evidenced by a separate test where over 96% success rate is achieved. We demonstrate statistically significant outcomes for using symmetry perception as a powerful, alternative, image-based reCAPTCHA.

Poster #67: 3D Printed Water Treatment Membranes

M. A. Hickner

Micro-patterned anion exchange membranes (AEM) have been 3D printed via a photoinitiated free radical polymerization and quaternization process. The photocurable formulation, consisting of diurethane dimethacrylate (DUDA), poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), dipentaerythritol penta-/hexa- acrylate, and 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC), was directly cured into patterned films using a custom 3D photolithographic printing process similar to stereolithography. Measurements of water uptake, permselectivity, and ionic resistance were conducted on the quaternized poly(DUDA-co-PEGDA-co-VBC) sample series to determine their suitability as ion exchange membranes. The water uptake of the polymers increased as the ion exchange capacity (IEC) increased due to greater quaternized VBC content. Samples with IEC values between 0.98 to 1.63 meq/g were synthesized by varying the VBC content from 15 to 25 wt%. The water uptake was sensitive to the PEGDA content in the polymer resulting in water uptake values ranging from 85 to 410 wt% by varying PEGDA fractions from 0 to 60 wt%. The permselectivity of the AEM samples decreased from 0.91 (168 wt%, 1.63 meq/g) to 0.85 (410 wt%, 1.63 meq/g) with increasing water uptake and to 0.88 (162 wt%, 0.98 meq/g) with decreasing IEC. Permselectivity results were relatively consistent with the general understanding of the permselectivity correlation with the water uptake and ion content of the membrane. Lastly, it was revealed that the ionic resistance of patterned membranes was lower than that of flat membranes with the same material volume. A parallel resistance model was used to explain the patterning influence on the overall measured ionic resistance. This model may provide a way to maximize the ion exchange membrane performance by optimizing surface patterns without chemical modification to the membrane.

Poster #68: A Super High Conducting Solid State Electrolyte for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Z. X. Yu, J. H. Seo, S. L. Shang, D. W. Wang, Z. K. Liu, D. H. Wang

All-solid-state battery with inorganic electrolyte is believed to be the safest battery, since it does not suffer from volatile and flammable issues that coming with batteries using organic liquid electrolyte. All-solid-state sodium-ion batteries would further boost large-scale application all over the world due to the abundance, even global distribution and low price of sodium sources. However, current solid sodium-ion conductors cannot meet the requirements caused by their low ionic conductivity (< 1 mS cm-1) or moisture instability at room temperature. Here we report a new sodium-ion conductor, Na3P0.65As0.35S4, with an extremely high conductivity of 1.46 mS cm-1 and greatly enhanced moisture stability at ambient temperature. First-principle analysis is involved to study crystal structure evolution upon As-substitution in Na3P1-xAsxS4 (0 <= x <= 1) and uncover the mechanism behind the dramatic conductivity improvement. All-solid-state battery using Na3P0.65As0.35S4 as the solid state electrolyte shows excellent electrochemical performance.

Poster #69: Boltzmann Mixing Among Multiple Parabolas: A Solution to the Temperature Evolution of Multi-Well Free-Energy Landscape

Y. Wang, S. L. Shang, L.-Q. Chen, Z. K. Liu

Temperature evolution of the multi-well free-energy landscape is the intrinsic nature of many phase transitions and their associated critical phenomena. Hereby we provide an alternative formulation to that of Landau expansion for the problem by introducing a priori concept of Boltzmann thermal mixing among multiple parabolic potentials (MPP). Correspondingly, the statistical thermodynamics of the macroscopic system is formulated by an ensemble of multi harmonic oscillators that vibrate with respect to different reference positions. The theory is able to account for phonon contributions, gives rises to a long-range field and a quadratic term for lattice anisotropy, and naturally describes the free-energy evolution from a multi-well to a single-well with increasing temperature. The exponential behaviors of thermodynamic properties in the MPP approach represent the quantum mechanical predictions that are much better than the polynomial behaviors in the Landau expansion, demonstrated using the tetragonal-cubic transition in PbTiO3.

Poster #70: The All-Seeing Eye: Estimating Direct Normal Irradiance from a New Multipyranometer Array

V. Srikrishnan, G. S. Young, J. R. S. Brownson

Accurate Direct Normal Irradiance measurements are important for systems that track the sun and for calculating global radiation incident on a tilted surface. One technique for measuring Direct Normal Irradiance is to use a multipyranometer array, which uses multiple low-cost sensors rather than a single higher-cost system. However, the methods typically used to estimate Direct Normal Irradiance from multipyranometer arrays can be computationally intensive and rely on models developed for clear-sky conditions, rendering them less useful for real sky conditions. A new design for a multipyranometer array, called the All-Seeing Eye, is presented which uses an Artificial Neural Network to estimate Direct Normal Irradiance from the pyranometer measurements. It is observed that a relatively simple network suffices for the single-site data used in this study, and the resulting estimator is found to be competitive overall with other methods of estimating Direct Normal Irradiance from pyranometer measurements. A prototype of the system has been installed at the SURFRAD network site in Rock Springs, PA.

Poster #71: Creep of Alkali-Activated Concrete Made without Portland Cement

M. Hojati, F. Rajabipour, A. Radlinska

Concrete, whether produced with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or any other alternatives, stiffens, shrinks, and exhibits creep over time. Shrinkage and creep can result in cracking, deflection and pre-stress loss in concrete structures which can influence their durability and serviceability. A widespread research has been conducted on the prediction of shrinkage, creep, and durability of OPC binder that can be traced back to almost half century ago. Over the past few decades, cement-free concrete has been proposed in response to the environmental concerns about OPC production [1-3]; and alkali-activated cement (AAC) has been gathering more attention compared to other alternatives to OPC Despite the recognition of AAC, there has been limited research reported on studying the creep, which may occur in these cement free binders. Knowledge about durability features of AAC is essential to facilitate their application in the concrete industry and help to develop and design more sustainably durable material. In this paper, attempts have been made to investigate the creep response of these novel green binders.The creep of four different AACs was studied in this paper. The specimens include an activated class F fly ash, an activated slag, and two activated fly ash-slag mortars. All AAC mortars were cured at 23 oC but alkali activated fly ash which was steam-cured for 1 day at 60oC. Creep characteristics of four AAC mortars was measured under compressive stress within 8 months. It was noticed that the time-dependent response of AACs containing slag is higher than steam-cured fly ash mortar. As such, the binder containing slag is likely to shrink more under continually internal stress caused by drying and exhibit greater time-dependent shrinkage. The creep characteristics of AACs were larger than predicted creep values of OPC as well.

Poster #72: Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) in the US Air Force

L. Michalopoulou, K. R. Hawkey, L. D. White, J. Welsh, D. P. Perkins

The US Air Force Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) program began collaborating with the Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness (Clearinghouse) at Penn State in 2012. ADAPT aims to implement prevention and intervention programs at the installation-level targeting alcohol and substance abuse. The Clearinghouse, in collaboration with Air Force partners, has a number of projects. Alcohol Brief Counseling 2.0 (ABC 2.0) evaluated alcohol-related counseling practices and generated new materials and training modules for an updated version of what was being implemented Air Force wide. Eleven ABC 2.0 training modules were generated to educate mental health providers on how to implement the updated materials and introduced them to counseling techniques. Level I followed ABC 2.0 and aimed to evaluate current practices of providers working with Airmen diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence. After the evaluation, the Clearinghouse reviewed the evidence of approximately 50 alcohol treatments and, in collaboration with AF partners, adapted three treatment programs and made them alcohol and Air Force specific. Mental health providers across installations received a brief training on the new programs. Overall, the Clearinghouse received positive feedback from practitioners across AF installations. Currently, the Clearinghouse aims to evaluate the Level 1 program in terms of implementation and effectiveness in a number of AF bases. Social norms - Phase II documented actual and misperceived norms regarding alcohol use and misuse via an anonymous survey among young Airmen age 18-24 at 14 participating Air Force Bases. Data was used to create targeted media that intensively exposed young Airmen to actual and corrective, normative messages around alcohol use with a goal of reducing harmful and risky behavior caused by alcohol misuse. In early 2016, an additional seven bases were selected for participation in a third treatment option that offers exposures to messages containing aggregate data from all Phase II surveyed bases with no base specific data collection. In 2015, the Clearinghouse was tasked to develop five online CBT modules for ADAPT mental health technicians that would prepare them for the Alcohol and Drug Counselor (ADC) exam. The project overviews the material that will likely be on the standardized examination, including information on the ASAM treatment levels, DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, counseling patients, patient screening and assessment, the therapeutic relationship, and legal and ethical considerations for treatment. Finally, AF partners want to stay updated on current research and, thus, often request systematic reviews. The Clearinghouse team has thoroughly examined the literature pertinent to a number of topics, including alcohol outcome measures, gambling and gaming addiction, protocols for the prevention of opioid misuse.

Poster #73: Molybdenum Disulfide and Graphene Heterolayers Synthesized by Layer-By-Layer Electrodeposition for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution

Y. Lei, K. Fujisawa, Z. Lin, N. P. Lopez, P. Xu, T. E. Mallouk, M. Terrones

Two dimensional atomic catalyst, MoS2, has been of considerable interest due to its hydrogen binding energy comparable to Pt. Recently, MoS2, especially heterostructure reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/MoS2 has been showing promising hydrogen evolution catalytic performance. However, a scalable and facile approach remains challenge to synthesize MoS2 catalytic coating. Herein, we present an electrodepostion approach to synthesize conformal MoS2 coatings on conducting substrates. In addition, layer-by layer electrodepostion makes it possible to synthesize heterlayer rGO/MoS2. After 400 °C annealing, polycrystalline MoS2 and rGO/MoS2 heterolayer with structure disorder and strain form, so that superior and stable hydrogen evolution coatings can be obtained.

Poster #74: The All-Seeing Eye: Estimating Direct Normal Irradiance from a New Multipyranometer Array

G. Cheng, S. J. Hao, S.-Y. Zheng

Rapid and efficient protein digestion by sequence-specific proteases is a prerequisite and critical step in proteomics. A novel photo-assisted nanoreactor was designed and constructed for rapid protein digestion. Porous graphene-silica composite material was prepared, and trypsin molecules were further immobilized in the nanopores to construct the functional nanoreactor for protein digestion. By taking advantage of the unique response of graphene to the near infrared light, this nanoreactor can realized rapid protein digestion under near infrared laser radiation, which is much faster than the widely applied overnight in-solution digestion using free trypsin molecules. It's expected that this work would contribute to the rapid and high throughput protein digestion in proteomics.

Poster #75: Designing for Additive Manufacturing: Lightweighting a 3D Printed Metal Part

T. Simpson, S. Joshi, A. Lehtihet, S. N. Reddy, B.-M. Roh

Additive manufacturing provides unprecedented design and material freedom, enabling engineers to design light weight structures, consolidate parts, and fabricate functionally-graded and multi-material structures in a single build. This work investigates Design for Additive Manufacturing to lightweight a metallic component for oil and gas applications. Specifically, lattice structures are used to reduce the weight of a part by 40% using a combination of solid modeling, optimization, analysis, and process simulation tools. Challenges with the design workflow are discussed, and 3D printed parts -- polymer prototypes as well as the final metallic part -- will be on display. Participants are also encouraged to stop by the poster to learn more about the additive manufacturing work in Penn State's Center for Innovative Materials Processing through Direct Digital Deposition (CIMP-3D), one of the leading additive manufacturing and 3D printing facilities in the country.

Poster #76: The Relationship Between Intestinal Dysbiosis and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients

C. Molnar, L. A. Schultz, Z. Ma, V. M. Chinchilli, J. R. Broach, J. A. Howrylak

Rationale: Despite decades of research, there are currently no reliable non-invasive methods that may be used to predict outcomes among critically ill patients. Our objective was to explore whether microbial abundance profiles obtained via culture-free methods from stool samples of critically ill patients could be used to predict clinical outcomes, including mortality rate. Methods: We obtained consent from subjects within 48 hours of admission to the ICU, and obtained stool specimens on a daily basis from subjects during the first seven days of their stay in the ICU, or for as long as they resided in the ICU. We performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of fecal specimens from 53 critically ill patients, and explored associations between clinical outcomes and microbial abundance levels using hierarchical clustering and decision tree classification analysis. Results: Microbial abundance profiles obtained from 53 critically ill study subjects demonstrated distinct differences in abundance levels of multiple bacterial phyla in comparison to healthy controls. Subjects in our ICU population had a predominance of Firmicutes (65.5%), followed by Proteobacteria (15.8%) and Actinobacteria (10.9%). Over a 5-day time period, we identified a core ICU microbiome in our population that was composed of Firmicutes (32.9%), Bacteroidetes (32.1%), Proteobacteria (27.8%), and Actinobacteria (4.3%). Hierarchical clustering of microbial abundance patterns demonstrated that subjects could be grouped into two Enterotypes. Subjects grouped in Enterotype 1 had lower levels of Actinobacteria present (p < 0.001) and also had an increased 28-day mortality compared to subjects in Enterotype 2 (p = 0.047). Predictive modeling using a decision tree allowed us to predict mortality using two genera within the Actinobacteria phylum with an overall accuracy of 77.4% (sensitivity = 30.4%, specificity = 96.7%, PPV = 87.5%, NPV = 64.4%). Conclusions: Results of our analysis demonstrate associations between intestinal dysbiosis and the development of critical illness, and suggest the potential for the development of predictive models based upon lower intestinal microbial abundance levels. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these findings and demonstrate their widespread generalizability.

Poster #77: Cold Sintering: A New Sintering Technique for Ceramics and Ceramic Based Composites

J. Guo, H. Guo, S. S. Berbano, A. Baker, S. Funahashi, M. T. Lanagan, C. A. Randall

The sintering process is the most basic part of processing materials, which involves the compaction and forming of a solid material through the application of thermal energy and/or pressure. Owing to the high melting points, most of the ceramics are sintered at high temperatures, using the conventional thermal sintering process. Recently, we developed a new sintering approach, namely Cold Sintering Process (CSP). CSP is an extremely low temperature sintering process (room temperature to ~200 oC), that uses a transient aqueous environment to effect densification by a mediated dissolution-precipitation process. The low temperature of CSP also makes it possible to co-sinter thermoplastic polymers and ceramic materials in a one-step sintering process. Various ceramics and ceramic-polymer composites are selected to show the feasibility of CSP. Cold sintering is more general and a diverse range of inorganic materials and composites can be sintered at much lower temperatures than previously thought possible. The CSP concept opens up a new material design scheme impacting a wide variety of applications.

Poster #78: A Two-Step CO2 Laser-Sustained Plasma Nitriding Process for Deep-Case Hardening of Commercially Pure Titanium

A. M. Kamat, S. M. Copley, J. A. Todd

Titanium and its alloys possess several attractive properties that include a high strength-to-weight ratio, biocompatibility, and good corrosion resistance. However, due to their poor wear resistance, titanium components need to undergo surface hardening treatments before being used in applications involving high contact stresses. Laser nitriding is a thermochemical method of enhancing the surface hardness and wear resistance of titanium. This technique entails scanning the titanium substrate under a laser beam near its focal plane in the presence of nitrogen gas flow. At processing conditions characterized by low scan speeds, high laser powers, and small off-focal distances, plasma strikes near the surface of the titanium substrate. This plasma can be sustained by the power of the laser beam away from any potentially interacting surfaces via a cascade ionization process. This research explored the unique effects of nitriding titanium in the presence of such a laser-sustained plasma (LSP). A two-step nirtiding-remelting method was proposed to form deep, hard cases on commercially pure titanum. Wide-area, crack-free, nitride cases, up to 800 µm deep and having average Vickers hardness values up to 650 HV0.3, were deposited. The proposed treatment enhanced the wear resistance of the base material by up to 80%.

Poster #79: Physical Origin a Framework for Controlling Nascent-Protein Folding

A. K. Sharma, E. P. O'Brien

An emerging paradigm in the field of in vivo protein biophysics is that nascent-protein behavior is a type of nonequilibrium phenomenon, where translation-elongation kinetics can be more important in determining nascent-protein behavior than the thermodynamic properties of the protein. Synonymous codon substitutions, which change the translation rate at select codon positions along a transcript, have been shown to alter cotranslational protein folding, suggesting that evolution may have shaped synonymous codon usage in the genomes of organisms in part to increase the amount of folded and functional nascent protein. Here, we develop a Monte Carlo-master-equation method that allows for the control of nascent-chain folding during translation through the rational design of mRNA sequences to guide the cotranslational folding process. We test this framework using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and find it provides optimal mRNA sequences to control the simulated, cotranslational folding of a protein in a user-prescribed manner. With this approach we discover that some codon positions in a transcript can have a much greater impact on nascent-protein folding than others because they tend to be positions where the nascent chain populates states that are far from equilibrium.

Poster #80: EME 597C: Creating University/Industry Collaboration

M. Alger, C. Marone, B. Schwartz

WHAT WE DID: We applied market discovery techniques used to qualify emerging products and services in startup companies to emerging research topics that could be pursued by INGaR. The goal was to see if our initial research topics had interest among industry groups or if they were looking for something else. HOW WE DID IT: We started with an initial research program concept that constituted several smaller research projects for individual faculty to do. We then approached companies and told them about the overall research program concept and the individual research projects it entailed and we asked them if they thought it was interesting enough to fund. WHAT WE FOUND: In every case the consensus of the industry representatives was that the program concept was either entirely or partially different from their market needs. They offered alternative research projects that were more likely to receive their funding.

Poster #81: Bilingualism Matters

F. Blanchette

The Penn State Center for Language Science (CLS; hosts the first US Chapter of Bilingualism Matters (, an international organization dedicated to translating the insights gained from bilingualism research to audiences beyond academia. The CLS is home to a rich cross-disciplinary research program on the science of bilingualism throughout the lifespan, from its earliest moments through to mature linguistic development. In today's increasingly multilingual society, individuals, families, businesses, and other organizations are challenged to adapt to a world in which speaking multiple languages is the norm rather than the exception. In our work with Bilingualism Matters, we aim to build bridges between language science research and researchers and the community, with a focus on families, educational settings, industry, and policy makers, to foster contexts outside the laboratory and university settings where learning about bilingualism and language science can take place. We wish to build long term, mutually beneficial relationships with community members and groups. Mutual benefits include the translation of research into practice in ways that help our local and national communities, both immediately and in the longer term, as well as access to feedback and input from community members that will help guide our research and ultimately enhance its broader impacts. This past year, our Bilingualism Matters chapter engaged in a number of different outreach activities within the Penn State community. We created a newsletter with research summaries, language tips, and other useful information (, held outreach events, and formed partnerships with numerous local groups and organizations. With our participation in Research Penn State 2016, we aim to forge new connections with industry and explore new ways to partner with individuals and organizations outside academia.

Poster #83: EME 597C: Creating University/Industry Collaboration

M. Alger, C. Marone, B. Schwartz

WHAT WE DID: We applied market discovery techniques used to qualify emerging products and services in startup companies to emerging research topics that could be pursued by INGaR. The goal was to see if our initial research topics had interest among industry groups or if they were looking for something else. HOW WE DID IT: We started with an initial research program concept that constituted several smaller research projects for individual faculty to do. We then approached companies and told them about the overall research program concept and the individual research projects it entailed and we asked them if they thought it was interesting enough to fund. WHAT WE FOUND: In every case the consensus of the industry representatives was that the program concept was either entirely or partially different from their market needs. They offered alternative research projects that were more likely to receive their funding.

Poster #84: EME 597C: Creating University/Industry Collaboration

M. Alger, C. Marone, B. Schwartz

WHAT WE DID: We applied market discovery techniques used to qualify emerging products and services in startup companies to emerging research topics that could be pursued by INGaR. The goal was to see if our initial research topics had interest among industry groups or if they were looking for something else. HOW WE DID IT: We started with an initial research program concept that constituted several smaller research projects for individual faculty to do. We then approached companies and told them about the overall research program concept and the individual research projects it entailed and we asked them if they thought it was interesting enough to fund. WHAT WE FOUND: In every case the consensus of the industry representatives was that the program concept was either entirely or partially different from their market needs. They offered alternative research projects that were more likely to receive their funding.

Poster #85: Artificial Cells Based on Phase Separation of Aqueous Polymer Solutions

A. M. Marianelli, A. T. Rowland, F. P. Cakmak, G. M. Mountain, C. D. Crowe, E. A. Frankel, C. D. Keating

The cellular matrix is both an extremely complex and incredibly well organized environment, utilizing both membranous and non-membranous compartments to localize biological activity. Recently, some non-membranous compartments have been shown to exhibit liquid-like behavior, suggesting a role for liquid-liquid phase separation in intracellular organization. The biological intricacy of the cell makes it difficult to study any specific variable in isolation, so the generation of model systems that remove some of the biological complexity while displaying similar physicochemical characteristics is important for understanding the physical chemistry of the cellular environment. This research focuses on mimicking microcompartmentalization within the cell, using liquid-liquid phase separation to generate aqueous multi-phase systems that are composed of similar classes of macromolecules (e.g., poly-electrolytes) to those found in the cell.

Poster #86: Sintering Recycled PET

K. Kirsch

Research was performed to find a process that would allow sintering of recycled post consumer PET to be used as roofing panels in Guatemala. Material weight, particle size, pressure, and time were the parameters that were changes throughout the experiment. An OFAT was done to isolate the variables and find their effect on the panels. The panels were judged on the amount of sintering that occurred. One of the biggest problems that occurred was cracking. The panels are sintering, but they have a differential heat transfer due to the design of the mold. Further research is being performed using a newly designed mold that will allow more even heating and cooling of the panel.

Poster #87: Mapping (is) the Future of Large-Scale Automation

S. Brennan

The challenges of modern automation are exemplified in the highly visible progress being made today in the automotive community. The public is witnessing great strides toward automated vehicles and highways, where near-flawless, better-than-human operation is required in challenging, life-and-death situations. The automotive sector is not alone in facing these challenges, as the same requirements are growing in military robotics, heath-care robotics, brain-machine interfaces, modern aerospace programs, and even in advanced trash collection and sorting systems. To meet this common challenge of large-scale, information-diverse automation, the Intelligent Vehicles and Systems Group is investigating the use of automation algorithms tied to dynamic, shared databases of information to provide "maps" to robotic systems. But maps require many steps not typical of robotics or control, including context-aware data compression, data gathering from trusted entities, careful yet routine updates from user data feedback, and user verification of map information. In the context of automation, map-based algorithms are particularly challenged in the presence of dynamic information sharing. It is not sufficient, for example, to verify that an automated vehicle can safely operate in all situations by exposing that vehicle merely to one DMV driving test. Classical control and automation techniques admit mathematically verifiable performance and as well predict the worst-case performing situations. But in contrast, map-based data sharing has aspects of adaptive behavior interacting with learning algorithms; yet, these approaches are strongly avoided in safety-critical situations. To mitigate these issues, the Intelligent Vehicles and Systems group utilizes strong user-verified algorithmic and automation methods, wherein maps are only trusted insofar as they agree with immediate sensor inputs. This process is demonstrated in this poster by providing overviews of a wide range of projects in the group: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Systems, road-friction learning, advanced driver warning systems, automated wheelchair systems, and robotic trash collection systems.

Poster #88: Carbon Dioxide Source Selection and Cost Analysis for Fracking Operations in Shale Gas Wells

X. Li, J. A. Ventura, L. F. Ayala H., U. V. Shanbhag

Fracturing using CO2 instead of water in natural gas withdrawal has been shown to be a promising alternative, which not only enhances the production of natural gas, but also prevents large amounts of water to be consumed and eliminates the potential pollution of aquifer and soil. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze possible sources of CO2 in any geographical location in the U.S. that can be used to capture and transport CO2 for fracturing operations in well pads. Different approaches to capture CO2 from power plants and industrial sources, as well as their corresponding technological maturity, are introduced. Two websites are provided that can be used to search and locate stationary CO2 sources. CO2 capture in power plants and industrial sources are discussed. Particularly, detailed models to calculate costs incurred by CO2 capture in two types of prime candidates, coal-fired power plants (CPP) and high-purity CO2 sources (HPS), are presented. Based on these models, a case study for possible CO2 sources in North Dakota (ND) is provided. For CPPs, two different scenarios are analyzed. The first scenario considers the case where CPPs make up the loss of power output caused by CO2 capture by outsourcing power; while in the second scenario, CPPs generate extra power up to an upper bound to cover the loss and then purchase power from other sources if necessary. The results show that the second scenario, if implementable, yields lower cost of CO2 captured (CCC) and higher amount of CO2 captured (ACC). In terms of HPSs, even though capturing CO2 from HPSs does not require gas separation, the relatively small volume of high-purity CO2 stream available in ND's HPSs leads to high capital cost per unit CO2 captured. As a result, most CPPs in ND lead to higher cost-effectiveness than the HPSs.

Poster #89: Nanostructure Exploration of Carbon Material by Curvature and Stacking Analysis

W. Zhu, R. L. Vander Wal, J. P. Mathews

In carbonaceous materials the nanostructure impacts properties and behavior. For complex examples, such as soot, there is considerable variability depending on the fuel and combustion conditions. The nanostructure can be observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. However, quantifying curvature and stacking extents are poorly established due to the lack of sophisticated image analysis tools and the rationalization of the nanostructure-curvature causes. Here new image analysis tools and ad initio atomistic modeling was utilized to explore soot nanostructure. Curvature was dissected into multiple segments with identification of angle change, segment length, segment frequency, and cumulative angle change. This exploration is considerably more detailed than the traditionally used tortuosity parameter. Angle changes between segments were related to possible geometric influences by exploring the incorporation of pentagons in polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Example PAH structures were geometry optimized by Density Functional Theory using Materials Studio interface and compared with the curvature for PAH molecules observed from lattice fringe HRTEM. By means of pentagon placement manipulation, we are able to obtain similar curvature transitions. The stacking analysis facilitates a visualization of the stacking distribution -- a measure of the soot particle degree of order. Much of the stacking had similar sized lattice fringes (PAH molecules of similar size). These examples demonstrate the utility of in-house software and their application to complex system evaluations. These data and relationships are likely to result in an improved characterization of soot with the potential to inform full-scale atomistic structural models for exploration of reactivity and emission reduction strategies.

Poster #90: Research at the Penn State Center for Language Science

Research at the Penn State Center for Language Science

Research focusing on bilingual speakers has grown steadily in the last decade. During this time the US language landscape has become increasingly linguistically diverse, and it is now estimated that around 21% of the US population speaks a language other than English at home. Despite the salience of bilingualism nation- and worldwide, it has long been treated as a special topic, somewhat peripheral to the study of human language overall, and research has focused primarily on a limited set of contexts (e.g. L2 college students in classroom settings, typically developing children), with fewer studies engaging more diverse populations. To meet the needs of an ever increasingly diverse multilingual population, it is essential to consider language learning in a diverse set of contexts: learners in language majority/minority contexts, bilingual children with language disorders, bilingual speakers in isolated regions (e.g. San Basilio de Palenque, Columbia), and aging bilinguals in language contact settings due to immigration. The Center for Language Science (CLS) at Penn State University has been at the cutting edge of bilingual research over the last 10 years - carrying out research in diverse settings, embracing new methodologies and interdisciplinary investigations, and triangulating across methodologies, languages, and social contexts. The CLS is composed of 20 faculty, 8 postdoctoral students, more than 30 graduate students, and dozens of undergraduate students - affiliated with four different PSU departments and two colleges. The diverse interests of the CLS researchers are unified by a shared interest in language science and bilingualism. Researchers use a variety of behavioral and neuroscience methods in the field and in the laboratory, including eye tracking, event related potentials, fMRI, and acoustic analysis. The CLS is also home to the first US chapter of Bilingualism Matters, an international organization founded in Edinburgh, Scotland, dedicated to communicating basic findings in the language science of bilingualism to families, educational institutions, and policy makers to enable informed decisions based on scientific evidence. The CLS Bilingualism Matters branch regularly engages in outreach work with the local community to share and promote the findings of bilingualism and language science research. The CLS has been awarded two multi-million dollar grants from the National Science Foundation's Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE) program to facilitate the development of an international research network, in Europe, Asia, and South America, with the aim of investigating the consequences of bilingual and multilingual experiences for learning and the brain. Each year two cohorts of CLS undergraduate and graduate students and postdoctoral fellows travel to partner sites to conduct research on bilingualism.

Poster #91: Integration of Contributed Data with HEC-RAS Hydrodynamic Model for Flood Inundation and Damage Assessment: 2015 Dallas Texas Case Study

E. Sava, J. Thornton, A. Kalyanapu, G. Cervone

Transportation infrastructure networks in urban areas are highly sensitive to natural disasters, yet are a very critical source for the success of rescue, recovery, and renovation operations. Therefore, prompt restoration of such networks is of high importance for disaster relief services. Satellite and aerial images provide data with high spatial and temporal resolution and are a powerful tool for monitoring the environment and mapping the spatio-temporal variability of the Earth's surface. They provide a synoptic overview and give useful environmental information for a wide range of scales, from entire continents to urban areas, with spatial pixel resolutions ranging from kilometers to centimeters. However, sensor limitations are often a serious drawback since no single sensor offers the optimal spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution at the same time. Specific data may not be collected in the time and space most urgently required and/or may it contain gaps as a result of the satellite revisit time, atmospheric opacity, or other obstructions. In this study, the feasibility of integrating multiple sources of contributed data including remotely sensed datasets and open-source geospatial datasets, into hydrodynamic models for flood inundation simulations is assessed. The 2015 Dallas floods that caused up to $61 million dollars in damage was selected for this study. A Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model was developed for the study area, using reservoir surcharge releases and geometry provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Fort Worth District. The simulated flood inundation is compared with the "contributed data" for the location (such as Civilian Air Patrol data and WorldView 3 dataset) which indicated the model's lack of representing lateral inflows near the upstream section. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is developed that used local precipitation and discharge values in the vicinity to estimate the lateral flows. This addition of estimated lateral inflows is expected to improve the model performance to match with the observed flows. Future work will focus on extending this preliminary work to assess the model performance after integrating these additional data sources.

Poster #92: Meeting the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Challenges in a Rapidly Changing World

H. Zhao, L. Xu, V. Mani, S. Kumara

The pharmaceutical (pharma) industry, as an essential part of the healthcare sector, faces dramatic challenges in this changing world. Two of such challenges we address in various projects are the rise of specialty drugs and the explosion of online pharmacy. Specialty drugs are one of the most important trends in the pharmaceutical (pharma) industry and the fastest growing segment of the healthcare industry as a whole (Conti and Berndt 2014, GAO 2013). In 2012, the number of specialty drugs approved by FDA exceeded the number of traditional drugs (AHIP 2015). While accounted for only about 1% of total prescriptions (IMS Health 2012), specialty drugs account for 30% of all pharmacy spending in 2012 ($92 billion) and will account for more than half by 2018, reaching $235 billion (CVS 2014). However, there has been little research regarding the challenges faced by the manufacturers in their distribution strategies to protect the drug integrity and security throughout the supply chain. We collaborated with a sponsor of CSCR to investigate the important factors manufacturers consider when choosing their distribution strategies for specialty drugs. Another important trend of the pharma industry is the explosion of online pharmacies. There is an estimate of 30,000 to 35,000 online pharmacies globally, with a stunning 92% being illicit and 85% of them ship drugs to the US. We use web analytics to build a model to classify and predict illegal online pharmacies. With data from NABP, our model has an accuracy of more than 90%. Such a model would greatly help patient education and protection. Further collaboration with search engine companies is being pursued which would further protect patients.

Poster #93: How Chromosomal Rearrangements Maintain Associations of Genes Adapted for Sensing and Detoxifying a Heterogeneous Environment in Drosophila pseudoobscura

Z. L. Fuller, G. D. Haynes, S. Richards, S. W. Schaeffer

Variation in the rates of recombination that shuffles genetic diversity within genomes can alter the speed that organisms can adapt to a heterogeneous environment. Recombination rates can be modulated during sexual reproduction either by altering the number of chromosomes in the genome or the rates of crossing over within chromosomes. Complex traits under the control of multiple genes will be especially susceptible to variation in recombination rates because shuffling genes generates many gene combinations for natural selection to act upon. Complex traits are predicted to respond to environmental challenges faster when genes are distributed among more rather than fewer chromosomes. Recombination is also a problem because shuffling genetic diversity underlying complex can breakup adaptive genetic combinations. In this study, we examine hypotheses for the establishment of chromosomal inversions, which are genome rearrangements that reduce levels of recombination in the genome. We use Drosophila pseudoobscura as a model system to test hypotheses about how inversions are established in populations. D. pseudoobscura has over 30 inversions segregating on its third chromosome in natural populations. The inversions form clines or gradients in frequency among different environmental niches in the southwestern United States. We generated 54 genomes from strains with one of six different inversion types to test whether different chromosomal arrangements show evidence of adaptation of protein coding genes. We generated transcriptomes for 18 strains drawn from larvae, adult males and females to test for differences in expression level among inversions. Molecular population genetic analyses of genomes showed multiple genes with inverted regions that show evidence of adaptive evolution. Analysis of the transcriptomes show that the different chromosomal inversions have captured genes that are differentially expressed. These data support the hypothesis that chromosomal inversions capture and hold together allelic variation for adaptation to a heterogeneous environment. The number of adaptive genes is positively related to the size of the inverted region suggesting that inversion size is a selected character. Functional analysis of the selected genes shows an enrichment for genes involved in sensory perception and detoxification of environmental chemicals. Genes from the limonene and pinine degradation pathway are an intriguing over-represented class of genes on this chromosome. Pinene is a monoterpene component of ponderosa pine xylem, which varies among trees across the distribution of D. pseudoobscura. These data suggest that sensory genes aid the adult flies in finding suitable habitats and detoxification genes aid the fly and larvae deal with environmental challenges in the habitats that they live.

Poster #94: The Use of High Performance Computing to Study Predictor Weighting and Scalability of the Analog Ensemble Method

L. Clemente-Harding, G. Cervone, L. Delle Monache

Renewable energy is fundamental for sustaining and developing society. Solar and wind energy are promising sources because of their decreased environmental impact relative to conventional energy sources, improved efficiency, and increased use. A key challenge with renewable energy production is the generation of accurate renewable energy forecasts at varying spatial and temporal scales to assist utility companies in effective energy management. Specifically, this research applies the Analog Ensemble (AnEn) method to short-term (0-48 hour) wind speed forecasting for power generation and short-term (0-72) hour solar power measured (PM) output predictions. AnEn uses a set of past observations corresponding to the best analogs of a deterministic numerical weather prediction model to generate a probability distribution of future atmospheric states: an ensemble of analogs. Using supercomputing capabilities, two particular focus areas are investigated using these datasets: 1) optimal predictor weighting for the AnEn is studied and 2) scalability of the AnEn method is tested. Results show that optimal weighting of the predictors used in the AnEn method provides significant improvement in prediction accuracy of the particular variable of interest. Improvement is also shown to be spatially variable. Computational scalability results of AnEn testing on the entirety of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) supercomputer Yellowstone show that the AnEn scales extremely well, confirming a theoretical analysis of the computational scalability. The AnEn method improves short-term prediction accuracy, decreases computational costs and provides uncertainty quantification allowing utility companies to manage over- or under power generation for renewable energy sources.

Poster #95: In Situ Delivery of Cell-Laden Collagen Modified Alginate Encapsulated in Thiol-Acrylate Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

A. Forghani, L. Garber, C. Chen, A. Chagneux, J. Pojman, D. Hayes

Injectable in situ polymerizing biomaterials provide a convenient method to conformally fill irregularly shaped bone defects and integrate with the surrounding tissue. To this end, several strategies including hydrogels, non-solvated polymer composites, and cements have been explored as injectable bone augments and grafts . While injectable polymer composites and cements are capable of providing biomimetic mechanical properties, degradation profiles and microstructure, the co-incorporation of cells and growth factors into these injectable formulations remains challenging largely due to the lack of aqueous solvation and the required curing conditions. Hydrogels, on the other hand, are attractive for cell, drug and bioactive molecule delivery due to their hydrated porous polymer network and cytocompatibility that allow for efficient mass transfer and exchange.Thiol-acrylate chemistry, a subset of thiol-ene chemistry fabricate polymers that have the advantage of rapid conversions from liquid monomers to a crosslinked polymer under physiological conditions which makes this polymers suitable for in situ polymerization in the presence of cells and tissue . In this study, a cell product compatible in-situ polymerization method was explored, based on a bi-phasic scaffolds system, combining synthetic thiol-acrylate polymer non-aqueous phase and human adipose derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) encapsulated in a hydrogel. The hydrogel phase is composed of alginate based hydrogel modified with collagen to aid in the support of cell adhesion. Cell viability and proliferation were analyzed using LIVE/DEAD staining and PicoGreen DNA quantification assay. hASCs in both alginate (ALG) and alginate-collagen (ALG-COL) beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for up to 21 days. However, hASCs in ALG-COL beads exhibited an elongated spindle shape and higher proliferation rate compared to ALG. hASCs laden ALG-COL beads were entrapped in trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate ( TMPeTA) co Trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropianate) (TMPTM)P scaffolds and remained viable for 3 days. Mechanical tests showed TMPeTA scaffolds having a compressive strength of approximately 0.2 MPa. Collectively, these results highlight the potential of the polymerization process of TMPeTA-TMPTMP to be a cell friendly process with adequate mechanical support for cell delivery in bone tissue engineering applications.

Poster #96: Optimal Resonance Configuration for Ultrasonic Wireless Power Transmission to Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants

M. Meng, M. Kiani

Ultrasound has been recently proposed as an alternative modality for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. It has been shown that to achieve high power transfer efficiency (PTE), the dimensions of the transmitter (Tx) and mm-sized receiver (Rx) should be chosen so that the resonant frequencies of Tx and Rx are matched and tuned to be the same as the operation frequency (fp), while two fundamental resonant frequencies, series resonance and parallel resonance, are involved for each transducer. This poster presents the considerations in choosing resonant frequencies by comparing four different combinations of Tx and Rx resonances, which are series-series, series-parallel, parallel-series and parallel-parallel. We have shown by finite-element method (FEM) simulations that 1) for disk-shaped Tx operating at parallel resonance can achieve higher PTE at a separation distance (d) of 3 cm with all other factors constant, and 2) for mm-sized disk-shaped Rx with aspect ratio greater than 1, operation at parallel resonance can achieve better PTE with assumed matched load condition, however, the load resistance (RL) depending on the application is a more important determining factor in choosing Rx resonance.

Poster #97: Competing Against Antibiotic Resistance with Communication Science

E. L. MacGeorge, E. P. Caldes, K. Foley, N. M. Hackman, A. F. Read, R. A. Smith

Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacterial infections no longer respond to formerly effective treatment with antibiotic drugs. At present, antibiotic resistant infections kill 50,000 people annually across the US and Europe, and this number continues to rise. Human behavior plays a significant role in the rise in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant infections. The behaviors include injudicious use for common acute illnesses (e.g., cold and flu) as well as problematic hygiene, sanitation, and vaccination. If we promote judicious use and prevention behaviors (referred to as antibiotic stewardship), the evolution of resistance will be slowed, and the efficacy of existing antibiotics extended. Penn State communication scientists are competing against antibiotic resistance with research to identify communication strategies that improve antibiotic stewardship in the general public and in clinical settings. One domain of research is profiling target audiences to design effective antibiotic stewardship campaigns for the public. Campaigns are more likely to produce change when they are targeted at homogeneous subgroups who share psychosocial drivers of behavior and reactions to campaigns. Accordingly, our research examines patterns of antibiotic-related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors to identify different audience profiles to inform campaign design (Smith et al., 2015, 2016). A second domain of research examines physician-patient interaction about antibiotics in primary care settings, where injudicious prescribing is notably high. Physicians need better strategies for interacting with patients and caregivers who inappropriately expect antibiotics. Our studies address physician communication behaviors and patient perceptions that affect key outcomes, such as willingness to delay or avoid antibiotic use and trust in the physician (MacGeorge et al., 2016a, 2016b). A third domain of research assesses message strategies that can be used in multiple contexts to enhance stewardship behavior, including not only judicious use of antibiotics, but also illness prevention through hygiene and vaccination. Theories of persuasion identify multiple avenues for crafting messages to change attitudes and behaviors. Our research tests alternative approaches to describing the threat of bacterial and antibiotic resistance, along with strategies for encouraging protective behaviors. In the next few years, we intend to pursue this research in more complex ways, including capturing message reactions through physiological responses, identifying how human behavior is associated with the presence of genetic markers of antibiotic resistance, and tracking changes in behavior, bacteria, and disease over time as a result of intervention.

Poster #98: Electricity Production from CO2 and Air in an Entropic Energy Flow Cell

T. Kim, B. E. Logan, C. A. Gorski

Generating electricity using fossil fuels inevitably produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is contributing to global warming. Since the increase in global temperature can detrimentally affect the environment and humans, efforts are being explored to capture or reduce CO2 emissions. Here we explored a new approach to reduce overall CO2 emissions by using waste CO2 to generate electricity. This can be done by (1) sparging two solutions with either CO2 or air, generating differences in the solution pH and bicarbonate concentrations and (2) using electrochemical techniques to convert these concentration differences into electricity. Only a few studies have been conducted to achieve this goal, and they produced a low power densities (0.0045 W m^2). To increase the power density, we have developed a flow cell that contains battery electrode that develops pH-dependent potentials. Using these battery electrodes allowed us to achieve a power density that is nearly 200 times higher than the previous study. This flow cell therefore is a promising new method for efficiently converting waste CO2 emissions into electrical power.

Poster #99: Phenomenological Model of Damage and Recovery in the Inervertebral Disc of the Cervical Spine Due to Cyclic Loading

S. Motiwale, A. V. Subramani, X. Zhou, R. H. Kraft

Recently, an increased incidence of neck pain has been observed in military soldiers that have experienced long excursions on land in rough terrain. These soldiers are typically equipped with the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH). It is hypothesized that this pain is linked to accelerated intervertebral disc degeneration caused by wearing heavier head supported components for extended periods of time. In order to study the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration in military personnel, we develop a nonlinear damage evolution model to predict the evolution of damage in cervical spine discs due to long-term cyclic loading. Our work is novel because previous efforts have focused on acute injury mechanics for the lumbar and cervical spine, but very few discuss damage due to fatigue. Our methodology begins with kinematic simulations of full-body musculoskeletal models, from which forces are extracted at the vertebral level for a single representative gait cycle, which are then used as inputs to our nonlinear model of intervertebral disc degeneration. To model the natural healing experienced in discs, we have also introduced a new recovery parameter to our model. We believe that inclusion of recovery is novel and is important to accurately predict the time-course of disc degeneration over decades. We validated our results using aging data from the literature for the intervertebral discs over individuals' lifetimes. We concluded that inclusion of recovery was necessary because without recovery the damage was highly over-estimated and excessively accelerated in the later half of the life. We also observed that the wearing of an advanced combat helmet caused more than 50% reduction in the lifetime of the disc. Currently, we are seeking additional military data to validate this finding. The three important advancements that this model brings to the area of modeling intervertebral disc degeneration are: 1) inclusion of recovery into the damage model that makes the model resemble the biological phenomenon more accurately than any other pre-existing models, 2) consideration of non-linearity of damage evolution, and 3) efficient approximation strategy that makes the model computationally inexpensive and fast while retaining the physics of the process. The damage framework has been developed and validated for a single element with the material properties of the cervical disc. In the future, we plan to implement the approach into a three-dimensional finite element model of the cervical spine.

Poster #101: Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

K. Wang, C. Drapaca, T. Neuberger

Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive imaging modality that combines MR and acoustic techniques to estimate stiffness of biomaterials based on their response to oscillatory shear stress. Since the stiffness of a biological tissue changes with pathology, MRE could play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. The aim of this research project is to construct a MRE system to image the propagation of shear waves through polymeric gels. Mechanical waves are generated using a piezoelectric needle driver that stabilizes its function with enough amplitude of oscillation motion. The shear waves generated by the actuator change the phase of the MR signals which can be imaged using a modified cine Flash sequence on the Bruker Paravision 6.0.1 software. Lastly, the MR images of propagating waves are used in a biomechanical model to estimate stiffness values which can be represented as stiffness maps (elastograms).

Poster #102: Novel Analytical Methods for Groundwater Quality Analysis Near Shale Energy Sites

D. A. Yoxtheimer

Directional drilling combined with high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) are disruptive technologies allowing unprecedented volumes of oil and gas to be produced from shale formations to meet society's energy demands, especially in North America. Concerns and highly-publicized allegations of groundwater contamination have persisted for multiple years in many shale basins including the Appalachian basin. Known mechanisms for groundwater impacts include methane migration from inadequate well construction and releases of drilling, fracturing and/or production fluids at or near the land surface. A major challenge to environmental investigations associated with shale energy development is that the many compounds used during drilling and fracturing operations are not currently regulated and therefore accepted analytical methodologies for these compounds do not exist. To meet this challenge we are utilizing two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) for analysis of groundwater samples where issues are suspected or known. A major advantage of using this method over conventional analytical techniques is a wide array of compounds can be detected in samples from investigations of alleged releases of fluids whose chemical makeup may be unknown or not fully disclosed. Use of GCxGC-TOFMS can lead to more comprehensive environmental characterization of alleged releases, and determine if they are related to a certain phase of shale development or are unrelated. Ultimately this methodology can be used to characterize and minimize environmental risks and exposures associated with oil and gas development and many other industries and activities.

Poster #103: Feasibility Study for Liquefied Natural Gas Utilization for Commercial Vehicles on the PA Turnpike

S. J. Kweon, S. W. Hwang, J. A. Ventura

Due to global concerns regarding environmental and economic sustainability in ground logistics, recent research has paid considerable attention to the commercialization of alternative fuel vehicles that help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As one of the alternative fuels, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is considered an attractive option for commercial long-haul trucks due to its low CO2 emissions as well as its low price. Nevertheless, logistics companies are reluctant to replace their long-distance trucks with LNG trucks because their supply chain routes have an insufficient level of LNG infrastructure coverage. Employing LNG vehicles in the transportation sector requires an initial LNG infrastructure, which would involve constructing refueling stations in the best possible locations to cover the maximum traffic flow on a given road network. To achieve the goal, we propose a 0-1 linear programming model that locates LNG refueling stations on a directed transportation network that has two types of candidate sites for LNG refueling stations: (1) single-access sites which are accessible to vehicles in only one driving direction, and (2) dual-access sites which are accessible to vehicles in both driving directions. The existing literature on path-based demand models to locate LNG refueling stations does not consider these directional candidate sites on transportation networks. In this respect, we suggest a novel mathematical model and solution algorithms to locate LNG refueling stations on a directed transportation network, such as a highway, toll road, or expressway, with the objective of maximizing the coverage of traffic flow. Using the 2011 truck traffic data, we then apply the proposed model to the two mainlines of the Pennsylvania Turnpike; the East-West mainline between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia (I-70, I-76, and I-276) and the Northeast extension between Philadelphia and Scranton (I-476).

Poster #104: When Mechanics Meets Electrochemistry: From Tiny Batteries to Electrochemically Driven Energy Harvesters

P. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Liang, T. Chen, S. Zhang

The supply of sustainable energy is arguably the most important scientific and technological challenge in the 21st century. To meet this challenge, enormous efforts have been undertaken to develop new energy storage platforms such as rechargeable batteries that are not only of high-energy and high-power, but also electro-chemo-mechanically durable. While Lithium ion battery (LIB) has remained the best performing electrochemical energy storage technique, high-energy-density LIBs still suffer from rapid, irreversible capacity decay and poor cyclability due to the electro-chemo-mechanically driven degradation and failure. Here we will present a set of interesting chemo-mechanical degradation phenomena of high-capacity anode materials, enabled by the real-time, atomic resolution imaging via advanced in-situ transmission electron microscopy, corroborated by multiscale, multiphysical modeling. From these phenomena, We will highlight how electrochemistry and mechanics are intimately coupled in defining the degradation. We will further show how nanostructuring, porosity, and surface coating can partially mitigate the degradation. In the end, we will demonstrate how the strong coupling effect can be exploited for electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting.

Poster #105: Judgment Hurts: The Psychological Consequences of Experiencing Stigma in Multiple Sclerosis

M. H. Cadden, P. A. Arnett, J. E. Cook

Objective: Many individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) report feeling stigmatized (Cook, Germano, & Stadler, in press), but little research has examined the psychological impact of this. Given the high prevalence of depression in MS, the aim of the current study was to assess, cross-sectionally and prospectively, the relationship between stigma and depression in people living with MS. Method: Data were collected from 5,104 people living with MS as part of the semi-annual survey conducted by the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS). Participants' perceptions of stigma and their ratings of depression were collected in spring 2013; one year later ratings of depression were collected again. Two subscales assessed stigma: Target-Stigma (e.g., ""Because of my MS, I worry about people discriminating against me"") and Isolation-Stigma (e.g., ""Because of my MS, I feel left out of things""). Hierarchical linear regressions tested stigma's contribution to depression both concurrently and prospectively, while controlling for demographic and health behavior covariates. Results: Controlling for covariates, Target-Stigma and Isolation-Stigma both positively predicted concurrent depression, t(5094) = 2.6, p < .01, η2p = .001; t(5094) = 27.9, p < .01, η2p = .133). Controlling for covariates, as well as baseline depression, Isolation-Stigma also predicted higher levels of depression one year later, t(5093) = 8.4, p < .01, η2p = .014. Results will also include tests of moderators of the stigma-depression relationship. Conclusion: Individuals with MS who report feeling stigmatized are more likely to be depressed and are at a greater risk of increased depression one-year later.

Poster #106: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy- a Tool for Probing Surface and Interface Chemistry of Materials

J. R. Shallenberger, V. J. Bojan

The surface and interface chemistry of materials impacts many important properties including corrosion, biocompatibility, adhesion, catalysis and various electrical phenomena. There are a variety of analytical tools used to probe surface and interface chemistry. One of the most useful is x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. MCL has a state-of-the-art tool available for either hands on use by any user within Penn State. Alternatively, many users choose to have the professional staff at MCL perform their analyses and interpretation. The background of the technique and examples from a cross section of Penn State research groups will be included in this poser.

Poster #107: Synthesis and Characterization of Sn(Sex,S1-x)2 Ternary Alloy Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

J. J. Fox

Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells comprise over 90% of the commercial solar cell market, but their conversion efficiencies are limited to a theoretical maximum of ~29%. One pathway to increase efficiency is to form tandem devices that are comprised of a top wider bandgap absorber material and a bottom c-Si photovoltaic device. A theoretical efficiency approaching 44% can be achieved by using a top cell with a bandgap energy of ~1.7 eV. Candidate materials for the 1.7 eV top absorber include dilute nitride III-Vs, CZTS and ZnSiP2, but none of these have yet emerged as the material of choice. Our research is focused on investigating Sn(Se,S<1-x>)2 ternary alloys, a layered material system with bandgap energies that span the range from 1.1 eV for SnSe2 to 2.2 eV for SnS2, as a potential top absorber material. In addition to having a bandgap energy in the correct range for tandem devices, Sn(Se,S<1-x>)2 crystallizes in 2-D layered sheets of atoms that are bound to one another via van der Waals forces. This is favorable for tandem solar cell applications due to the lack of required covalent bonding between the stacked top and bottom absorbing layers which typically limits the choice of material for multi-junction devices. In addition, Sn and S are earth-abundant elements which is important for the development of a sustainable photovoltaic technology. The research to date has focused on the synthesis of SnSe2 and SnS2 thin films as binary components of the Sn-Se-S system via a powder vapor transport process. The film characteristics have been evaluated as a function of furnace temperature, growth duration, and carrier gas flow rate. Most significantly, the orientation of SnSe2 and SnS2 platelets is shown to vary depending on the substrate type and position of the substrate within the tube furnace. Crystals grown on sapphire and oxidized Si substrates reveal out-of-plane nucleation while growth on CVD graphene facilitates nucleation and lateral growth along the substrate surface. Characterization of these materials by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence measurements, scanning electron microscopy and other methods, confirm the structural and electrical properties of the SnSe2 and SnS2 films. Once the growth conditions for the binary alloys have been thoroughly studied, the research will focus on the synthesis of the Sn(Se,S<1-x>)2 ternary alloys.

Poster #108: MRSEC IRG3 - High Pressure Enabled Electronic Metalattices

H. Y. Cheng, S.-Y. Yu, J. L. Russel, A. J. Grede, S. Mills, D. Talreja, Y. Liu, W. Chan, S. P. Motevalian, Y. Xiong, Z. Huang, D. W. Gidley, N. C. Giebink, N. Alem, I. Dabo, V. H. Crespi, Y. Liu, S. E. Mohney, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding

Electronic metalattices are materials engineered with 3D periodic structures composed of high purity semiconductor, metals and insulating materials. Metalattices? ordered structure are at the scale of 1 - 60 nm, which is appropriate for coupling to electrons, phonons, excitons and exchange stiffness length (magnetism). Compared to ordered superlattices, metalattices have 3D order and pervasive connectivity that facilitates flow of electrons and phonons. In the case of semiconductor metalattices with smaller periodicity, quantum confinement effects could arise. We have developed a technique to synthetically realize such materials by infiltrating a wide range of electronic grade semiconductor and pure metals into pores of various well-ordered nano-templates using high pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

Poster #109: Understanding Gene Regulation via Machine Learning

N. Yamada, A. Kakumanu, L. Rieber, D. Srivastava, S. Mahony

Gene regulation is orchestrated by the activities of transcription factors (TFs) and other regulatory proteins. Determining how such regulators recognize their regulatory targets would enable a deeper understanding of how many cellular processes are controlled and how many disease states occur. However, understanding the gene regulatory code has turned out to be a challenging problem. For example, while many TFs recognize specific DNA patterns, the vast majority of matching sequences will not in fact be occupied by the TF in any given cell type. Furthermore, a given TF will recognize different instances of its binding pattern in different cell types. Such context-dependent specificity appears to be determined by the regulatory environment of the cell: interactions with other proteins, chemical modifications on DNA and histones, and the organization of chromatin all play roles in specifying a given TF's binding sites. Therefore, to understand how any cell is specified and controlled, we must consider how all regulators are interacting with one another and the genome. Fortunately, high-throughput sequencing assays give us unprecedented insight into the regulatory environment of the cell. For example, the ChIP-exo assay allows us to profile regulatory protein interactions with DNA at high resolution over the entire genome. We aim to take advantage of such experimental data to develop a cohesive understanding of cellular activity. Specifically, in interconnected projects we develop machine learning approaches that: 1) process and interpret individual regulatory genomics experiments; 2) characterize the three-dimensional organization of the genome from chromatin interaction experiments; 3) characterize DNA signals that are responsible for distinct regulatory behaviors; and 4) develop integrative models of gene regulation across many different forms of regulatory datasets. We apply these various approaches in collaboration with colleagues at Penn State and beyond in order to understand how particular cell types or behaviors can be 'programmed' via gene regulatory signals.

Poster #110: Cellular Force Driving Multicellular Epithelium Dispersion

Y. Zhang, P. Zhao, Q. Wei, S. L. Zhang

Cancer metastasis has been commonly believed as a genetically programmed process. Here we show that physical forces can also drive malignant transformation and in vitro metastasis of cancerous HCT-8 cell colonies cultured on hydrogels. We observe that the onset of metastatic-like dispersion into individual cells and malignant transformation of HCT-8 colonies depends on both gel stiffness and colony size: dispersion occurs for cell colonies on stiff gels but not on soft ones; on stiff gels smaller colonies disperse earlier than larger ones. Cellular force measurements, analyses, and manipulations converge to a force-driving dispersion model: there exists at the pre-dispersion stage a cellular force threshold above which the cell colonies disperse into individual malignant cells and below which the cell colonies remain cohesive. In addition to shedding light on microenvironment-mediated pathways for tumor cells to acquire metastatic ability, our findings suggest cellular forces as possible cancer prognostic mechano-markers.

Poster #111: EMS Corrosion Group: Environmental Degradation of New Materials and Protection of Infrastructure

E. Sikora, B. A. Shaw, D. Wang, R. Gresh, K. Srinivas, M. S. Kadhi, C. Van Pelt

Our group actively engages in a broad spectra of corrosion research. Our most recent research interest concerns studying corrosion susceptibility of Additively Manufactered (AM) alloys. We have evaluated the electrochemical response of: AM produced 316 stainless steel, nickel-based, superalloy Inconel 625, and lightweight Ti and Ti-4Al-V alloys. The results indicate that the corrosion response is significantly affected by the deposition parameters, which in turn affect the materials' microstructure. Another area of research interest involves designing new, environmentally compliant coatings for protection of magnesium components (used in aircraft) from corrosion. This multifunctional layered coating system would incorporate varied corrosion protection components: a novel, nonequilibrium sacrificial thin-film magnesium alloy layer on top of the component to be protected, and then perhaps an encapsulated inhibitive species in the organic topcoat layer. Especially challenging is designing sacrificial protection for Mg alloys, since magnesium is already the most active structural metal and will corrode preferentially when in contact with any other metals. We are employing physical vapor deposition techniques to form magnesium thin-films that are more active than bulk magnesium, and these films can be used as sacrificial coatings for bulk magnesium. We are also interested in improving the protective properties of coating systems used in oil and gas pipelines. In oil and gas extraction the presence of CO2, H2S, sea water creates very corrosive environment. In addition, internal surfaces of pipelines are subjected to abrasive action of sand particles. Synergy between erosion and corrosion significantly compromise the integrity of the pipelines. Therefore we are involved in characterizing multifunctional internal coating systems consisting of a sacrificial, zinc-rich layer and varied types of organic barrier layers with different additives (CNT among them) to improve the performance of the sacrificial additives . In the corrosion field being able to monitor corrosion is often just as important as shielding a component from corrosion with a coating system. We are developing a low-cost, conformal, corrosion sensor for evaluating coating and coated metal degradation in hard-to-access spaces. The most immediate application for these sensors would be placing them onboard ships (especially amphibious ones) where hard-to-access areas are often intermittently flooded with seawater and then drained and as a result are subject to accelerated corrosion. We have designed a three-electrode, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based sensor that we fabricated by screen-printing using commercially available conductive inks on top of a polymer top-coated polyimide substrate So far we have demonstrated that the sensor can quantitatively assess degradation of the paint and corrosion of the underlying metal.

Poster #112: A Coupled Reaction-Diffusion-Strain Model of Bone Growth in the Cranial Vault

C. Lee, J. T. Richtsmeier, R. H. Kraft

Bones of the cranial vault are formed by intramembranous ossification due to direct differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. The process is controlled by a cascade of reactions between extracellular molecules and cells. In this study, we propose an integrated mechanobiological model for the cranial vault bone formation by coupling the reaction-diffusion model for interacting molecules with the biomechanical input in the growing domain. We assume that the behavior of the molecules important to bone formation can be modeled using Turing's reaction-diffusion model which describes the pattern formation driven by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In addition to the reaction-diffusion model, we hypothesize that mechanical stimuli of the cells due to growth of the underlying brain contribute significantly to the process of cell differentiation in cranial vault development. Distribution of mechanical strain over the surface of the brain on which the ossification process occurs is affected by its geometry that changes over time as the developing brain grows and by material properties that also change according to the stages of cell differentiation. To explore effects of mechanical strain on bone formation in the cranial vault, structural analysis is conducted in the computational domain that grows with a speed calculated from experimental data. The strain field of the surface of the brain was estimated at each time step with different material properties for undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and differentiated osteoblasts, whose distribution is predicted using a reaction-diffusion model. The strain field estimated by structural analysis in turn affects the differentiation of cells again by being coupled with the reaction-diffusion model. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data that provide precise three dimensional (3D) measures of murine (mouse) cranial geometry and cranial vault bone formation for specific embryonic time points. The results show that mechanical strain plays a important role in formation of bone and sutures in cranial vault. Our mechanobiological model predicts some key features of cranial vault bone formation that can be verified by experimental observation including the relative location of ossification centers of the individual vault bones, the pattern of cranial vault bone growth over time, and the position of cranial vault sutures.

Poster #113: Electrostatic Generation and Ratcheted Transport of Aqueous Droplets

C. A. Cartier, J. R. Graybill, K. J. M. Bishop

Rapid droplet generation and transport within microfluidic devices enables process parallelization and applications ranging from medical diagnostics to particle synthesis. Typically high-speed droplet generation and manipulation is achieved passively via pressure driven flows from an external pump such as microfluidic flow focusing devices or T-junctions. Alternatively, droplets can be generated and transported through active actuation mechanisms. For example digital microfluidic systems make use of an array of electrodes to provide discrete control of droplet position (e.g. Electrowetting-on-Dielectric) however these systems are often accompanied by complex fabrication and a reduction in transport speed. Simpler active actuation mechanisms are needed to make portable droplet microfluidic systems more economically feasible. We demonstrate that a microfluidic device constructed with simple soft-lithography techniques can generate charged droplets electrostatically using only a DC voltage without bulk pressure driven flow. Once droplets are generated, rapid transport of aqueous droplets is accomplished by combining contact charge electrophoresis with ratcheted microfluidic geometries. We discuss how the voltage, pressure, channel geometry and fluid properties affect the droplet generation and transport behavior and we propose heuristics for the optimal design of this system. We believe this system could eventually act as a cheap platform for portable digital droplet PCR systems powered only by a battery.

Poster #114: Molecular Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Frozen-Hydrated Biological Materials

J. O. Lerach

Imaging mass spectrometry combines high analytical sensitivity and chemical mapping capabilities into one unique and powerful platform. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has the best imaging resolution of these mass spectrometry based techniques in addition to its extreme analytical sensitivity. While this technique has been a staple for analysis in the semiconductor industry and other fields which require elemental analyses, recent advancements in primary ion technology have enabled the proficient analysis of molecular information with ToF-SIMS. These new capabilities are enabling ToF-SIMS to branch out into new and exciting fields such as biology, medicine, polymer chemistry and materials. Penn State has recently acquired a Physical Electronics nanoTOF II ToF-SIMS instrument which resides in the Materials Characterization Laboratory. The breadth of research at Penn State is astounding and this instrument is uniquely poised to provide analysis across the Penn State research community. The research presented here focuses on the analysis of organic and biological materials while also pioneering new methods of sample preparation and analysis routines for these complicated samples. A new methodology for the introduction of frozen-hydrated materials into the nanoTOF systems has been established at Penn State and is discussed. In addition, some research highlights from the analysis of frozen-hydrated biological materials with the ToF-SIMS are shown.

Poster #115: iPetrogel: New Crude Oil Absorbent Based on Polyoelfin Polymers

C. Nam, H. X. Li, G. Zhang, T. C. Chung

The occurrence of solvent or oil spills due to chemical tanker ship accidents are decreasing due to the improvement of shipbuilding standards such as double hulls compulsory for all new tanker ships.However, crude oil spill accidents on an offshore oil rig is another threaten to the ocean habitat. Although a number of oil spills from tankers or offshore drilling contributed less than 8 percent of petroleum in North Americans oceans each year, with the increasing of offshore oil production, concerns over the accidental oil spillage have been growing, especially after the BP Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2010. Furthermore, the crude oil spillage from pipeline incidents become more of a concern, and oil spillage is a severe factor to the marine environment. Those problems are a worldwide challenge on how to remediate such crude oil spillage on the ocean. Our group, discuss a new class of polymer absorbents called "iPetrogels", polyolefin-based hydrophobic absorbents that demonstrate selective absorption of crude oil in water, counterpart to "hydrogels" that are known for absorbing aqueous solutions. To understand the effects of the molecular structure (i.e., polymer composition, cross-linking density, and morphology) to the absorption capacity with various hydrocarbons and mixtures, a systematical study was conducted involving polyolefin copolymers that exhibit a highly swellable network but no dissolution in hydrocarbons at ambient and low temperature. The absorption study involves pure hydrocarbons (toluene and heptane), refined oil products (gasoline and diesel), and Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil. The maximum absorption capacities of iPetrgoel with ANS crude oil can reach 42 times that of the polymer weight.

Poster #116: Recovery of Highly Fragmented nDNA from Skeletal Material for SNP-Based MPS Analysis

E. Zavala, T. J. Parsons, G. Perry, M. M. Holland

Identification of skeletal remains that have been discovered after an extended period of time is becoming an increasingly important part of the fields of anthropology and forensic science. Examples of this are the missions of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) and the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory. These types of remains have usually been exposed to the elements and tend to be older than what may be seen in a typical forensic identification case; although a significant percentage of the unidentified remains in medical examiner's offices across the country fall into this category. Extended exposure to environmental insults results in increased DNA degradation, leading to fragmentation of the DNA, in some cases to less than 150 base pairs in length. Current human identification methods use a combination of mitochondrial DNA and/or short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. These techniques target segments of DNA ranging from 100 to 500bps in length. Due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA recovered from more degraded skeletal remains, identification is not always possible with these techniques. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is ideal for these samples as they can be typed through targeting shorter regions of DNA (40 to 70bps). When multiple SNPs are typed simultaneously they can be used for identity, and carefully selected SNPs can also provide phenotypic and ancestry information that would help with human identification. Since current methods of DNA extraction in forensics have been optimized for recovery of larger fragment sizes suitable for STRs, for SNP typing it would be desirable to use methods optimized for recovery of the relatively abundant smaller fragments. In order to evaluate which parameters to address for optimization, two sets of experiments were performed that utilized sheared, pristine DNA. The first set employed only sheared DNA, which is what previous studies have also done. The second set combined the sheared DNA with demineralized animal bone. In both cases the efficiency of different binding buffers and columns was evaluated in order to identify an optimized protocol. The results indicated little variance between the MinElute and QIAquick columns and buffers with the experiments involving only sheared DNA, however differences increased markedly when the sheared DNA was combined with demineralized animal bone extract, and then human bone extract. A change from a 100K amicon filter to a 30K filter during the concentration step was incorporated into the optimized protocol to retain smaller fragments of DNA. The resulting protocol was compared to the current protocol used by the ICMP with skeletal material ranging from the 7th to 18th century recovered in Croatia. All samples were collected and donated through collaboration with the University of Split, Croatia. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) SNP analysis was conducted with the Illumina ForenSeq kit on the MiSeq instrument.

Poster #117: ReaxFF - A Cross-Institutional Method for Atomistic-Scale Simulations of Chemistry at Complex Interfaces

K. Yoon, C. Ashraf, M. Golkaram, Y. Shin, M. Islam, A. Ostadhossein, R. Lotfi, Q. Mao, M. Fedkin, W. Zhang, A. C. T. van Duin

The ReaxFF method provides a highly transferable simulation method for atomistic scale simulations on chemical reactions at the nanosecond and nanometer scale. It combines concepts of bond-order based potentials with a polarizable charge distribution. Since it initial development for hydrocarbons in 2001, we have found that this concept is transferable to applications to elements all across the periodic table, including all first row elements, metals, ceramics and ionic materials. At this moment, over 350 publications related to ReaxFF have appeared in the open literature, and its user base covers over 1000 academic and industrial groups. For all these elements and associated materials we have demonstrated that ReaxFF can reproduce quantum mechanics-based structures, reaction energies and reaction barriers with reasonable accuracy, enabling the method to predict reaction kinetics in complicated, multi-material environments at a relatively modest computational expense. This poster will describe the current concepts of the ReaxFF method, the current status of the various ReaxFF codes, including parallel implementations and recently developed hybrid Grand Canonical Monte Carlo options - which significantly increase its application areas. We will present applications to materials, including recent results for controlling the surface chemistry of 2D-materials and for simulating 2D-material growth. We will also provide an overview of the ReaxFF applications to environmental chemistry, including nanotoxicology, combustion and soot formation. Finally, we will present recent applications to biochemistry, including applications to peptide and DNA-chemistry. As such, this poster highlights the transferability of the ReaxFF concepts, and how it provides a methodology relevant to cross-institutional research at Penn State.

Poster #118: Two-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Materials 1T-TaS2: Synthesis and Characterization

R. Zhao, D. Deng, Y. Wang, L.-Q. Chen, J. R. Robinson

1T-TaS2 is a layered material which exhibits a series of Charge Density Waves. Phase evolutions detected by non-polarized Raman spectroscopy will be shown in this poster. Polarized Raman study on 1T-TaS2? crystal structure in its commensurate phase will also be discussed. It will also demonstrate the substrate impact on the 1T-TaS2 metal-to-insulator (MIT) phase transition, indicating a way to tune this transition by modifying substrate surfaces based on strong and weak pinning mechanisms. In this poster, systematic synthesis method of 1T-TaS2 and 2H-TaS2 via chemical vapor deposition will be presented. Heterostructures based on metallic TaS2 and semiconducting MoS2 will also be achieved in this work.

Poster #119: Deficits in Inhibitory Force Control in Young Adults with ADHD

K. A. Neely, K. Perez-Edgar, C. L. Huang-Pollock

ADHD is a common, childhood-onset, heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD persists into adulthood in up to 65% of cases, affects the ability to gain and maintain employment, and is associated with an increased risk for substance abuse, obesity, workplace injuries, and traffic accidents. These adverse outcomes may be related to persistent deficits in motor control and not simply presumed differences in executive functioning. Inhibitory control is the ability to suppress actions that are inappropriate in a given context. Inhibitory control is often measured with the Go/No-Go task. In this task, stimuli are presented rapidly and the performer must press a button in response to specific stimuli (i.e., Go) or withhold that response to other stimuli (i.e., No-Go). Although numerous studies report poor inhibitory control in individuals with ADHD, the button-press task used in these studies records performance via the presence or absence of a single key press. Such an approach lumps together cognitive, sensory, and motor processes into one dichotomous response. As a result, we may be overlooking critical processes that provide insight into the neural mechanisms of the disorder. In contrast, the current study measured inhibitory control using a continuous force task that provides a more sensitive metric for understanding how motor control is altered in ADHD. We used a Go/No-Go button-press task as well as a grip force variant of the task to measure motor inhibition in young adults with and without ADHD. Participants were shown a visual display that contained a movable force bar and a stationary target bar. In Go trials, participants produced force using their index finger and thumb to move the force bar to overlap the target bar. In No-Go trials, participants were to withhold a response. The grip force task had two conditions: low force amplitude (15% of maximal voluntary contraction) and high force amplitude (60% of maximal voluntary contraction). Participants produced force for 750 ms and the inter-trial-interval was 500 ms, thus trials occurred rapidly creating a prepotency to respond. The button-press task was identical to the force task. Participants were instructed to press the space-bar on a keyboard in Go trials as quickly as possible and to refrain from pressing the space bar in No-Go trials. As expected, adults with ADHD made more failed inhibits in the classic Go/No-Go paradigm, but also produced greater and more variable force during motor inhibition compared to adults without ADHD. Further, greater and more variable force output during motor inhibition was associated with higher trait impulsivity and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/restlessness, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that the use of a precise and continuous motor task provides a more nuanced understanding of inhibitory control in ADHD compared to a button-press task.

Poster #120: Synergistically Combining Materials for Human Drug Development

R. Gowda, G. Kardos, A. Sharma, S. Singh, G. P. Robertson

The combination of novel materials to alleviate a human disease condition underlies the drug development process. The ultimate goal to treat human disease is to develop novel material combinations that can cooperate to alleviate the disease symptoms at the lowest concentrations possible. Material use at the lowest concentrations is needed to minimize any potential side effects of the agents on normal cells or organs. While this is the gold standard, the process is frequently limited by the bioavailability and toxicity of the combined agents, and delivery at particular material ratios or combinations to specific locations that are effective on the target cells or organs. This has been overcome in this study, where we detail the development of a novel material that loads a combination of agents into a single nanoparticle that is not toxic and more importantly, releases the materials at cooperatively synergizing ratios to a single location to resolve this concern. Plumbagin and Celecoxib are two drug materials that were identified from a screen to synergistically kill cancer cells by inhibiting the COX-2 and STAT3 signaling pathways. Combined use of these materials for treating cancer by traditional approaches was not possible due to poor bioavailability and toxicological concerns. This study details the development of a nanoparticle-based material containing Plumbagin and Celecoxib, called CelePlum-777, which has no apparent toxicity, is stable and releases these drugs at optimal ratios for maximal synergistic efficacy for killing tumor cells. Furthermore, CelePlum-777 was more effective at killing cancer than normal cells and inhibited melanoma tumor growth by up to 72% without apparent major organ related toxicity. Mechanistically, the drug combination in CelePlum-777 led to enhanced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by decreasing levels of key cyclins important for cancer cell survival, which was not observed with the individual agents. Thus, a novel nanoparticle-based material has been developed containing Plumbagin and Celecoxib that lacks toxicity and delivers the materials at a synergistic drug ratio to kill cancer cells in animals.

Poster #121: Advanced Electroactive Materials and Devices

Q. M. Zhang, Y. Thakur, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, M.-C. Lu, H. Xi, R. Jiang, X. Zhao, J. Li

We present in this poster several recent advances in the Laboratory for Electroactive Materials and Devices in developing multifunctional polymer, ferroelectric ceramics, and nanocomposites for their energy conversion and energy storage applications: (i) The giant electrocaloric effect (ECE), i.e., large temperature and entropy changes, near room temperature in ferroelectric materials and advanced EC cooling devices with effective regenerative process, leading to high cooling power density and efficiency. (ii) Polymer dielectric capacitors, based on strong dipolar polymers with random structure and built-in "free volume" at temperature far below glass transition, leading to high energy density, low loss and high thermal stability. (iii) Ultra-high sensitivity piezo-magnetic sensor systems for biomedical applications. (iv) Piezocomposite transducers suitable for operating at high temperature (> 200 C) and high pressure environment.

Poster #122: The Penn State Zebrafish Functional Genomics Core: A New Resource for Research at Penn State

K. C. Ang, S. E. Arnold-Croop, P. J. Hubley, K. C. Cheng

The Zebrafish Functional Genomics Core (ZFGC) is a newly designed research facility funded by an NIH G20 grant, Pennsylvania Department of Health Tobacco Settlement Funds and departmental support from across the Penn State College of Medicine. This facility, located at the College of Medicine in Hershey, Pennsylvania, was established to provide the Penn State Research Community with a modern, centralized facility for housing, breeding and performing experiments with zebrafish. The central housing room features twin, state-of-the-art Pentair Aquatic Habitats recirculating aquaria equipped with independent filtration/purification, allowing for individualized control of system water quality and conditions. Three independently controlled light-tight breeding cabinets control embryo production, maximizing microinjection efficiency. An adjoining procedure room contains four microinjection stations and two photo booths, providing bright field and fluorescent imaging. An isolated quarantine room containing three stand-alone housing systems allows researchers to import fish into the facility without jeopardizing the welfare of the central housing facility. Zebrafish have become an organism of choice for modeling human disease due to their embryonic transparency, small size, and well-developed genetic tools. A major challenge in personalized medicine is the lack of a standard way to define the functional significance of the numerous nonsynonymous, single nucleotide coding variants that are present in each human individual. The growing number of candidate genes and polymorphisms found through SNP chip and whole genome sequencing has created a pressing need for systematic experimental approaches for assessing their phenotypic impact. Approximately 70% of human protein-coding genes and 84% of human disease-associated genes have functional genetic homologs in zebrafish. The increasing ease with which mutations can be generated in virtually any gene using TALEN/CRISPR nucleases, combined with the relative economy of the model, has made zebrafish even more compelling as a vertebrate model. As a result, the Core is a timely complement to our current research resources and has the potential to make a significant impact on biomedical research at Penn State.

Poster #123: Penn State: We Are? Lab Safety!

A. Hanshew

Research conducted under the banner of the Office of the Vice President for Research covers a wide breadth crossing the biological, chemical, and physical sciences, and many interdisciplinary fields in between. This breadth of research poses many and varied challenges in terms of laboratory safety. All lab personnel, including faculty, staff, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, and visitors have responsibilities to ensure a safe environment for academic research at Penn State. To help meet these needs, Environmental Health and Safety provides proactive training and guidance on numerous lab safety topics including biosafety, bloodborne pathogens, chemical and hazardous waste management, hazard communication, incident/accident investigation, laser safety, lockout/tagout, and respiratory protection, amongst many others.

Poster #124: Design of New Anion Exchange Membranes for Electrochemical Applications

L. Zhu, X. D. Yu, M. A. Hickner

Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are polymer-based electrolyte solids that conduct anions (OH?, HCO3?, Cl?, et al.), with positively charged groups bound covalently to the polymer backbones. There has been a strong and growing worldwide interest in the use of anion exchange membranes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) have been regarded as promising energy conversion devices for stationary and mobile applications due to their potential low cost. To realize high-performance AEMFCs, new polymeric membranes are needed that are highly conductive and chemically stable. Herein, cross-linked, multi-cation side chain, and fluorene side chain AEMs based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)s (PPO) were synthesized. PPO was chosen as an AEM substrate because of its ease of functionalization at large scale and relatively good stability and membrane properties. To produce anion conductive and durable polymer electrolytes for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of cross-linked quaternary ammonium functionalized poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)s with mass-based ion exchange capacities (IEC) ranging from 1.80 to 2.55 mmol/g were synthesized via thiol-ene click chemistry. From small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), it was found that the cross-linked membranes developed micro-phase separation between the polar PPO backbone and the hydrophobic alkyl side chains. The ion conductivity, dimensional stability, and alkaline durability of the cross-linked membranes were evaluated. The hydroxide ion conductivity of the cross-linked samples reached 60 mS/cm in liquid water at room temperature. The chemical stabilities of the membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated aging conditions and degradation was quantified by measuring ion conductivity changes during aging. The cross-linked membranes retained their relatively high ion conductivity and good mechanical properties both in 1 M and 4 M NaOH at 80 ?C after 500 h. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra were used to study the degradation pathways of the membranes, and it was discovered that ?-hydrogen (Hofmann) elimination was likely to be the major pathway for degradation in these membranes. Side-chain containing AEMs with one, two or three cations per side chain were designed and synthesized, enabling a study of how the degree of polymer backbone functionalization and arrangement of cations on the side chain impact AEM properties. A systematic study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with multiple cations per side chain site was conducted to demonstrate how this motif can boost both the conductivity and stability of poly(phenylene oxide)-based AEMs. The highest conductivity, up to 99 mS/cm at room temperature, was observed for a triple-cation side chain AEM with 5 or 6 methylene groups between cations. This conductivity was considerably higher than AEM samples based on benzyltrimethyl ammonium or benzyldimethylhexyl ammonium.

Poster #125: Solutes Induced Solid Solution Softening and Hardening in BCC Tungsten

Y. J. Hu, M. Fellinger, B. G. Butler, K. A. Darling, L. J. Kecskes, D. R. Trinkle, Z. K. Liu

The solute-induced softening and hardening effects in BCC W for twenty-one substitutional alloying elements (Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt) are examined to search for possible Re-substitutes that will result in a similar softening effect in W. The changes in the energy barriers and stress scales of dislocation motion caused by the solute-dislocation interactions are directly computed via first-principles approaches with special dislocation boundary conditions. The solute effects on critical resolved shear stress of the 1/2 <111> screw dislocation in BCC W at room temperature is quantitatively predicted, as a function of alloy concentration, via an improved mesoscopic solid-solution model by using first-principles results as input parameters. It is found that the solute elements, which induce large reductions in the shear modulus or bulk/shear moduli ratio, do not necessarily decrease the plastic/flow strength of BCC W. Al and Mn are proposed to be promising substitutes for Re as these two elements introduce a similar softening effect as Re in BCC W. In addition, the trends, regularities of the solute-dislocation interactions, and their correlations to the dislocation core structure geometries are discussed.

Poster #126: Citizen Monitoring During Hazards: Validation of Fukushima Radiation Measurements

C. Hultquist, G. Cervone

Citizen-led movements producing scientific hazard data during disasters are increasingly common. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, and the resulting radioactive releases at the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants, citizens monitored on-ground levels of radiation with innovative mobile devices built from off-the-shelf components. To date, the citizen-led SAFECAST project has recorded 50 million radiation measurements worldwide, with the majority of these measurements from Japan. The analysis of data which are multi-dimensional, not vetted, and provided from multiple devices presents big data challenges due to their volume, velocity, variety, and veracity. While the SAFECAST project produced massive open-source radiation measurements at specific coordinates and times, the reliability and validity of the overall data have not yet been assessed. The nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear-power plant provides a case for assessing the SAFECAST data official aerial remote sensing radiation data jointly collected by the governments of the United States and Japan. This study spatially analyzes and statistically compares the citizen-volunteered and government-generated radiation data. An assessment of the SAFECAST dataset requires several preprocessing steps. First, SAFECAST ionized radiation sensors collected data using different units of measure than the government data, and they had to be converted. Secondly, the normally occurring radiation and decay rates of Cesium from deposition surveys were used to properly compare measurements in space and time. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within overlapping extents at multiple spatial resolutions. Quantitative measures were used to assess the similarity and differences in the observed measurements. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations and statistically significant correlations. The results suggest that actionable scientific data for disasters and emergencies can be inferred from non-traditional and not vetted data generated through citizen science projects. This project provides a methodology for comparing datasets of radiological measurements over time and space. Integrating data for assessment from different Earth sensing systems is paramount for societal and environmental problems.

Poster #127: Tellurium-Assisted Low-Temperature Synthesis of MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers

Z. Lin, Y. Gong, G. Ye, G. Shi, S. Feng, Y. Lei, A. L. Elias, N. Perea-Lopez, R. Vajtai, H. Terrones, Z. Liu, P. Ajayan, M. Terrones

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a scalable method able to synthesize MoS2 and WS2 monolayers. In this work, we reduced the synthesis temperature by 200 °C only by introducing tellurium (Te) into the CVD process. The as-synthesized MoS2 and WS2 monolayers show high phase purity and crystallinity. The optical and electrical performance of these materials is comparable to those synthesized at higher temperatures.

Poster #128: Effect of Cooling Rate on Crystal Polymorphism in Beta-Nucleated Isotactic Polypropylene as Revealed by a Combined WAXS/FSC Analysis

A. M. Rhoades, N. Wonderling, A. Gohn, J. Williams, D. Mileva, M. Gahleitner, R. Androsch

The efficiency of linear trans g-quinacridone to nucleate formation of b-crystals in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) at rapid cooling conditions has been evaluated by a combination of fast scanning chip calorimetry (FSC) and microfocus wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). For samples containing different amount of g-quinacridone, FSC cooling experiments revealed information about a critical cooling rate above which the crystallization temperature decreases to below 105 C, that is, to temperatures at which the growth rate of a-crystals is higher than that of b-crystals. Microfocus WAXS analysis was then applied to gain information about the competition of formation of b- and a-crystals in samples prepared at welldefined conditions of cooling at rates up to 1000 K/s in the FSC. For iPP containing 1 and 500 ppm gquinacridone, the crystallization temperature is lower than 105 C on cooling faster about 10 and 70 K/s, respectively, which then on further increase of the cooling rate leads to a distinct reduction of the bcrystal fraction. The study may be considered as a first successful attempt to quantify and interpret bcrystal formation in iPP containing g-quinacridone at processing-relevant cooling conditions in the shed of light of the different temperature-dependence of the growth rates of a- and b-crystals.

Poster #129: Implementation of a Visco-Hyperelastic Constitutive Model into the Kodiak Marker Method

Z. R. Hertel, R. H. Kraft, S. C. Schumacher

Recently, the marker method, based on the Material Point Method, has been implemented into the shock physics code Kodiak. The marker method is a hybridized Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, in which strength and history data are stored on Lagrangian particles within an Eulerian domain. This research investigates the implementation of a non-linear visco-hyperelastic material model into the Kodiak marker method. The overarching goal of this research is to allow for the simulation of high-rate experiments on non-linear materials, such as polymers and biological materials. The implemented material model is compared to existing experiments for biological materials, from low-rate simple shear experiments, to moderate and high rate split hopkinson-bar tests.

Poster #130: Scare Them! Then What? Fear and Tobacco Warning Label Effectiveness

L. Shen

Drawing upon traditional theory and research in fear/threat appeals, tobacco warning labels use graphic and scary images to discourage cigarette smoking. A recent development in fear research suggests that a within-individuals approach offers a better account for how fear persuades and why threat appeals might succeed or fail. A web-based experiment (N=454) using tobacco warning labels showed that 1) the inverted-U shape curve in fear within individuals positively predicts persuasion; that is, fear needs to be activated then reduced for warning labels to succeed; and that 2) a linear trajectory in within-individual fear negatively predicts persuasion; that is, when fear is activated but not reduced, warning labels fail.

Poster #131: Cross-Species Bioinspired Liquid Repellent Materials

J. Wang, B. B. Stogin, X. Dai, T.-S. Wong

Combining unique mechanisms of different species in nature within a single material/coating has been rarely pursued in the fields of biomimicry and bio-inspired engineering. Our group has recently developed a number of cross-species bioinspired surfaces modeled after the salient features of various plant species. Our surfaces outperform conventional lotus-leaf-inspired liquid repellent coatings, and may find many industrial, energy, water, and medical applications.

Poster #132: The Laboratory for Isotopes and Metals in the Environment (LIME) at Penn State

M. S. Fantle, M. S. Gonzales, L. Liermann, M. D. Feineman, A. Smye, S. L. Brantley

The Laboratory for Isotopes and Metals in the Environment (LIME) at Penn State is a world-class facility for the measurement of isotopic (Ca, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, U-series, and Pb isotopes), major elemental (e.g., Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si), and trace elemental (e.g., rare earth elements, Pb) compositions in a range of materials. The main scientific applications of the data produced within LIME include: using isotopes and trace elements as source tracers (i.e., provenance) or as indicators of process (e.g., redox chemistry, mineral dissolution, recrystallization, petrogenesis) and geochronology (i.e., telling time and constraining reaction rates on a range of time scales). The facility offers access to four plasma-source instruments and one thermal source instrument for high precision isotopic and chemical characterization: a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DV ICP-AES [major elements], two Thermo X-Series II quadrupole ICP-MS [trace elements], a Thermo Neptune Plus MC-ICP-MS [isotopic composition], and a Thermo Triton Plus thermal ionization mass spectrometer [isotopic composition]. Samples are typically introduced as acidic solutions, and a 193 nm Eximer laser ablation system is also available to sample solids at spatial scales of tens of microns for analysis by quadrupole ICP-MS. LIME also offers clean chemistry laboratories for the preparation of samples, which can include acid (wet) digestion, combustion, and ion exchange chromatographic purification. Sample types that can be analyzed, with some preparation, include: organic/biological material (e.g., tree rings, bone, animal tissue), geologic (e.g., silicates, oxides, sulfides, metals, carbonates, etc), natural waters (e.g., brine, groundwater, stream water, and soil pore fluid), and synthetic (e.g., ceramics, thin films, glass). Interested users are encouraged to contact LIME to discuss (i) analyses in which they are interested, (ii) how the geochemical tools in LIME may be used to answer their research questions, (iii) the limitations of the instruments, and (iv) the sample preparation that may be required to attain high quality analyses of their specific sample types.

Poster #133: Accelerating Network Science and Bioinformatics: Scalable Computing Lab Research Activities

H. Kabir, T. Panitanarak, V. Rengasamy, H. Zhan, K. Madduri

The Scalable Computing research group, led by Prof. Kamesh Madduri, conducts research on the design of new parallel algorithms and software tools for analyzing massive scientific data sets, and in support of large computational science simulations. This poster will highlight the key innovations in PULP, FASCIA, FastPath, and HPCGraph, new open-source tools for analyzing massive graphs. Graph analyses tools can be applied to computations in healthcare informatics, intelligence and surveillance, and for processing socially-generated data from the web and mobile devices. The poster will also present SPRITE, a collection of parallel tools for end-to-end genetic variant analysis of whole genome sequence data.

Poster #134: An Overview of Material Synthesis, Characterization, Device Development and Testing Capabilities in the Applied Research Laboratory's Electronic Materials and Devices Department (EMDD)

D. W. Snyder, M. A. Fanton, D. J. Rearick, R. Cavalero, B. Weiland, R. Gamble, K. Trumbull, G. Pastir, R. Lavelle

The Penn State Applied Research Laboratory's Electronic Materials and Devices Department (EMDD) has developed a vertically integrated capability from material synthesis through device fabrication and testing for DoD and commercial applications related to piezoelectric transducers, RF and power electronic systems, Chem/Bio sensors and IR detectors. This poster describes the range of crystal growth techniques, material synthesis capabilities, material characterization methods, device design and fabrication capabilities and device testing used to support internal research projects and industrial collaborations. Recently expanded capabilities for ceramics processing and two-dimensional materials will be highlighted. A series of specific examples of prototype materials and devices currently under development including single crystal and textured ceramic piezoelectric transducers, graphene FETs, IR and radiation detectors, SiC diodes, photoconductive semiconductor switches and MEMs structures will be presented.

Poster #135: Center for Dielectrics and Piezoelectrics (CDP)

S. Trolier-McKinstry

The CDP aims to provide international leadership and train next-generation scientists in the fundamental science and engineering that underpin dielectric and piezoelectric materials. The center supports industries based on capacitor and piezoelectric materials and devices through the development of new materials, processing strategies, electrical testing, and nanoscale characterization and modeling methodologies. Innovations in the dielectrics and piezoelectrics industrial sectors often arise from research advances in materials chemistry, synthesis, and/or manufacturing that enable new materials and device functionality. A broad and diverse number of material challenges across the capacitor- and piezoelectric-based industries are addressed by research thrusts within the CDP. In many of these areas, the CDP faculty members are international leaders and have unique capabilities to drive research innovations for next-generation materials and devices. Our aim is to engage companies across the supply chain, i.e. ones that manufacture dielectric and piezoelectric materials, component manufacturers, and end users, who will provide the technological pull for CDP research activities.

Poster #136: The Relationship Between Sleep Disturbances and Neuropsychological Outcomes Following Sports-Related Concussion

E. Guty, P. A. Arnett

Objective: Sports-related concussion in college students is associated with a number of negative functional outcomes. Sleep disturbances are observed in some individuals following concussion, but it is not well established how these disturbances are related to other negative outcomes, such as impairments in neurocognitive functioning. This study seeks to explore the relationship between these outcome variables. Method: 136 participants were included from a university-based sports concussion program. Sleep disturbance was assessed by calculating a sum score based on participants' responses to the sleep-related questions from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Individuals with a score of 2 or greater were placed into the "sleep problems" group while individuals with scores of less than 2 were placed in the "no sleep problems" group. These groups were then compared based on their performance on various neuropsychological measures evaluating memory, attention, and processing speed. Results: There was a significant effect of sleep group on performance for certain neuropsychological tests. Individuals in the disturbed sleep group performed significantly worse on the IMPACT Verbal Memory Composite, t(129) = 2.96, p = .004, the HVLT-R Total Recall, t(134) = 2.47, p = .015, and the HVLT-R Delayed Recall, t(134) = 3.09, p = .002. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a specific relationship between disturbed sleep and difficulties in verbal memory following concussion. Though speculative, it may be that individuals with sleep problems post-concussion are at greater risk of functional impairment academically due to associated problems with verbal memory. Future work is needed to explore such possible functional outcomes.

Poster #137: Electronic Materials Synthesis of Thin Films and Nanomaterials

X. Zhang, T. H. Choudhury, M. Hainey Jr., Z. Y. Al Balushi, N. Martin, A. Kozhakmetov, J. Fox, J. M. Redwing

Our research focuses on the development of new semiconductor materials and processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for applications in solid state lighting, photovoltaics and nanoelectronics. Chemical vapor deposition is a widely used manufacturing technology for the preparation of single crystal thin films and conformal coatings with systematically tunable properties. It is also finding increasing use for the preparation and integration of nanoscale materials such as nanoparticles, nanowires and two-dimensional crystals. Current research activities within the group focus on several materials systems and CVD processes. The deposition of group III-nitride (GaAlInN) thin films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is an area of on-going interest. The group III-nitrides form the basis of commercial high brightness light emitting diodes for solid state lighting and power transistors for radar, communication and electric vehicle technology. Current projects focus on the heteroepitaxial growth of GaN thin films and device layers on Si substrates to reduce cost and enhance device functionality. Growth substrate engineering by deposition of Si/Ge heterostructures is also being explored. GaN growth has also been attempted on epitaxial graphene on SiC, which depending on growth conditions has yielded ?2D-GaN?. The growth of Si nanowires by metal-mediated low pressure CVD an area of active research as well. Topics of interest include the use of alternative metals for nanowire growth and the integration of nanowires into photovoltaic devices to improve device efficiency. Growth of layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors by MOCVD is also being explored. Present work focusses on growth of TMDs like WSe2, NbS2, WS2 and MoS2 for nanolectronic applications. In particular, the film properties resulting from the choice of precursor is being investigated in details. Recently, powder vaporization of another layered ternary system SnSxSe(2-x) was initiated to investigate the optical and electrical properties of the system.

Poster #138: Inventor Name Disambiguation for a Patent Database Using a Random Forest and DBSCAN

K. Kim, M. Khabsa, C. L. Giles

Inventor name disambiguation is the task that distinguishes each unique inventor from all other inventor records in a patent database. This task is essential for processing person name queries in order to get information related to a specific inventor, e.g. a list of all that inventor's patents. Using earlier work on author name disambiguation, we apply it to inventor name disambiguation. A random forest classifier is trained to classify whether each pair of inventor records is the same person. The DBSCAN algorithm is use for inventor record clustering, and its distance function is derived using the random forest classifier. For scalability, blocking functions are used to reduce the complexity of record matching and enable parallelization since each block can be run simultaneously. Tested on the USPTO patent database, 12 million inventor records were disambiguated in 6.5 hours. Evaluation on the labeled datasets from USPTO PatentsView competition shows our algorithm outperforms all algorithms submitted to the competition.

Poster #139: Building Better Programs: A Systems Approach Examining International Education Programs

N. B. Habashy

It's no small act: packing up one's life for a time, traveling thousands of miles to a different region of the globe, and engaging with people in a very different environment. It is a wonderful opportunity for international collaboration and enhanced intercultural understanding. It also has the potential to be a destructive environment where students can gain skewed perspectives and people in a local community can be degraded or patronized. There are many parties involved in international education programs, this presentation will focus on the three most salient parties -- students, educators, and communities receiving students. As a result of reviewing this poster, participants will be able to identify relevant inputs, processes, and outputs of a global education program and critically examine the structure of such programs to optimize the outcomes for all parties. This poster will explore the scholarly literature related to the inputs, processes and potential outputs of education abroad and service-learning programs around the globe. By beginning to understand the whole process we are able to ask critical questions about the structure, design, and objectives of such global education programs and ultimately design better programs. Before we embark on international partnerships we must ask who makes the decisions about the projects in the community, who has the agency, and who holds the power in the relationship. It is through understanding the concepts of power and agency that healthy and active intercultural collaborations may be built and greater outcomes will be achieved for students and communities.

Poster #140: Location of Oncogene Expression Within a Stratified Squamous Epithelium Drives Distinct B and CD4 T Cell Crosstalk to Dictate the Tumor Immune Response

M. Podolsky, C. Oakes, A. Gunderson, K. Breech, J. Bailey, A. Glick

Tumors from stratified epithelium contain proliferating and differentiating compartments, but it is not clear how tumor cells in different layers alternatively engage the immune system. We have established two doxycycline inducible Ras models in which oncogenic RasV12G is targeted to either the epidermal basal/stem cell layer with a Keratin14-rtTA transgene (K14Ras), or suprabasal differentiating cells with an Involucrin-tTA transgene (InvRas). On threshold doxycycline levels yielding similar tumor numbers and Ras expression over 30 days, mice with basal cell targeted Ras developed focal squamous cell carcinoma while suprabasal targeting caused benign squamous papilloma formation. On a Rag1-/- background InvRas mice developed fewer tumors that regressed over time while K14Ras mice developed more tumors with shorter latency than Rag1+/+ controls. Depletion and adoptive transfer studies revealed that naive B and CD4 T cells together, but not alone, suppressed tumor formation in K14Ras mice but restored tumor numbers in InvRas mice. Tumors developing in K14Ras mice showed a loss of proinflammatory CD4 T and B cells and increased percentages of regulatory cells infiltrating the tumor tissue. In vivo cotransfers show that B and CD4 T cells reciprocally prime each other towards a regulatory phenotype in the K14Ras tumor microenvironment, but in the InvRas tumor microenvironment proinflammatory CD4 T and B cell phenotypes result. Coculture of tumor-conditioned B cells with stimulated naive CD4 T cells showed an importance of direct contact and CD40/CD40L interactions for the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by B cells in K14Ras mice. In contrast, tumor-conditioned B cells from InvRas mice support generation of proinflammatory CD4 T cells, and antagonize Treg development. This function is restricted to tumor-conditioned B cells, as splenic B cells from tumor-bearing mice had no effect on CD4 T cell phenotype. In vivo blockade of CD40L in K14Ras mice resulted in significantly increased tumor counts as well as reduced B and Treg prevalence. Blockade of CD40L in InvRas mice significantly reduced tumor number, increasing Treg cell count and decreasing neutrophil infiltration into the tumor tissue. Time-course experiments suggest a protective role of Tregs in late stages of K14Ras tumors, and a tumor-promoting role of proinflammatory CD4 T cells in InvRas tumors. Thus, basal/stem cell expression of Ras provokes a regulatory cell inducing microenvironment, suppressing tumor-promoting inflammation in late-stage tumors. Ras expression in differentiating cells activates a tumor promoting proinflammatory phenotype in B and CD4 T cells without provoking immunosurveillance. Taken together, these data show that tumor cell position within a stratified epithelium differentiation hierarchy provokes distinct B and CD4 T cell interactions with opposing effects on tumor development.

Poster #141: Sharing Video Data with Databrary

R. O. Gilmore

Databrary ( is a digital data library that enables scientists to store, manage, and share video collected as raw data in behavioral research. Open sharing of scientific data and materials has become an emerging priority in many scientific domains. Databrary empowers researchers who use video to store and manage these materials using a secure, centralized web-based system. Video often contains faces and voices, making the recordings potentially identifiable. Databrary has developed a policy framework that researchers may adopt for securing permission from research participants to share video with other researchers. Penn State faculty have been leaders in the development, implementation, and use of Databrary from the project's beginning in 2012. Video data are 'big data' in many respects, and this presentation will show how Penn State researchers and others are employing Databrary in their research.

Poster #142: Research in the Crespi Group

J. Albert, F. Ali, V. H. Crespi, B. Katz, P. Lammert, A. Nourhani, M. Sanchez Farran, Y. Tang, B. Vermilyea, T. Wang, Y. Wang, E. Xu, B. Zheng

An overview of research in the Crespi group, spanning from theory of 2D materials to carbon nanothreads, nanomotors, frustrated magnetism, and semiconducting metalattices. Possible applications include ultrahigh strength materials (long term), 2D magnetism, 2D grain boundary engineering, magnetic information storage, biomedical applications of nanomotors, and possible processing of colloidal materials.

Poster #143: Efficient Processing of Heavily Filled Composites by UV Curing

V. Christensen, M. Krohn, P. Chan, A. Natarajan

1-3 piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites are widely used to make transducers that can be implemented in a variety of applications. A traditional thermal cure epoxy system has been the material of choice for composite fabrication; however this material system has a lot of limitations, ranging from high moisture absorption, high cure shrinkage, and long curing time. We found that UV curing formulations can be very robust and can be used repeatedly to generate consistent results while reducing production time. Understanding the kinetics of UV curable resins is important in determining the optimal cure settings to support the variety of configurations required for 1-3 composite manufacturing. UV formulations of epoxy resins were studied with the addition of five different aromatic hydrocarbon and aromatic ketone photosensitizers to increase the cure depth while minimizing shrinkage. A model relating the UV transmission to the desired cure depth was developed as a tool for manufacturing to ensure proper settings that produce yields with limited scrap. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was leveraged to characterize the kinetics of the UV curing and to validate full depth of cure was achieved for a variety of composite configurations. By properly formulating a UV curable resin with the addition of a photosensitizer, production time for heavily filled 1-3 piezoelectric composites was reduced by 96 percent.

Poster #144: Studies of Multi-Muscle Synergies: A Sensitive Tool for Parkinson's Disease

A. Falaki, X. Huang, M. M. Lewis, M. L. Latash

Balance impairment is one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although effects of PD on motor functions and balance have attracted many researchers, there is no objective tool to quantify motor/postural changes that can be used to measure PD severity. We hypothesized that postural synergies at the level of muscle coordination (synergies in the space of activations of muscle groups, M-modes) may be used to measure postural stability and produce indices sensitive to changes in motor coordination. We explored effects of PD and dopamine-replacement therapy on multi-muscle synergies stabilizing the center of pressure (COP) coordinates and their adjustments prior to a self-triggered action. Eleven PD patients without overt postural instability problems (Hoehn-Yahr, HY stage-II) and 11 age-matched controls performed cyclic body sway in the anterior-posterior direction at 0.5 HZ and released a load from extended arms. Surface electromyography signals of 13 leg and trunk muscles on the right side of the body were transformed into four M-modes using principal component analysis and factor extraction. Using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, inter-trial variance among muscle groups was divided into two components to quantify synergies: variance within the UCM (VUCM) had no effects on the COP coordinate, while the orthogonal component (VORT) changed the COP coordinate. This analysis needs multiple trials to identify the variance structure, which may be problematic in patient populations. In order to overcome this problem, we quantified motion in the space of M-modes that had no effect on the COP coordinate (motor equivalent, ME) and the one that changed the COP coordinate (non-motor equivalent, nME) using individual cycles within a sway trial. UCM space was approximated by the null-space of the Jacobian matrix that mapped small changes in M-modes to COP shifts. Comparing patients tested on-drug to controls: (1) M-modes accounted for a lower amount of variance in the muscle activation space, (2) synergy indices were significantly lower, and (3) synergy adjustments prior to the load release were smaller and delayed. Similar differences were seen in 10 patients (HY stage II and III) tested off-drug and on-drug in a follow-up study. These differences were confirmed by the motor equivalence analysis. ME correlated with VUCM while VORT correlated with nME, both over the phases of the sway cycle and across subjects. Results suggest that two analyses reflected a common characteristic of action, postural stability. Findings highlight the importance of brain loops involving the basal ganglia for proper control of postural stability. Impaired ability to adjust synergy indices in preparation to an action may contribute to rigidity and episodes of freezing. We conclude that analysis of ME and nME components, using a few trials, can be used as a clinical measure for early diagnosis of PD and disease progression.

Poster #145: Center for Research on Advanced Fiber Technologies (CRAFT)

M. Vural, M. Terrones, M. C. Demirel

The Pennsylvania State University is a leading institution in materials-based research, and now has the distinct opportunity to become a world leader in an emerging field of smart materials. At present, Penn State has many faculty members working in various complementary disciplines related to fiber science and technology, and beyond. This faculty consists of an interdisciplinary blend of experimentalists and theorists, in addition to post-docs and students. Importantly, the participating faculty (Melik Demirel, Mauricio Terrones, John Badding, Ibrahim Ozbolat, Reuben Kraft, Chuck Bakis, Semyon Slobounov, Benjamin Allen, Jeff Catchmark, Greg Ziegler, Seong Kim, Qing Wang, Judith Todd, Dino Ravnic, Suresh Kuchipudi, Charles Anderson, Yingwei Mao, Reggie Hamilton, Kevin Koudela, Felecia Davis) represent a very strong interdisciplinary team from four different colleges (Eberly College, Earth and Mineral Sciences, Agricultural Science, and Engineering), and four institutions (Huck Life Sciences, Materials Research, Cyber Science, and Environment & Energy). Capitalizing the strong research foundations of Pennsylvania State University, Center for Research on Advanced Fiber Technologies (CRAFT) aims to become an international leader in research on new phenomena and applications of programmable smart composite fibers that could be transformed into high impact functional textile products in medicine, automobile, energy, biotechnology, and cosmetic industries. The center will provide a unique platform integrating research education to graduate and undergraduate students (including Millennium and Schreyer Scholars), with state-of-the-art infrastructure, and an ideal research environment.

Poster #146: Das Research Lab

D. Schulman, A. Arnold, J. Nasr, A. Razavieh, S. Das

The Das research lab primarily focuses on two-dimension materials for various electronic, optoelectronic, electrochemical and bio-inspired applications. Recent work has utilized hysteresis in MoS2 field effect transistors (FETs) to capture the quantal, stochastic, and excitatory and inhibitory nature of neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses in response to action potentials and external stimuli. A comprehensive framework to design programmable synapses which stimulate long term potentiation, depression and other physiological conditions that impact brain function has been developed. The possibility of ultra-low power neuromorphic system design was demonstrated by employing the OFF state device characteristics of MOS2 FETs. Work done by the group developing electrochemical processes to produce large area, single layer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) films led to the discovery of their extraordinary corrosion resistance in oxidizing conditions which readily corrode bulk materials. It is believed that strong substrate monolayer interaction compared to the relatively weak interlayer van der Walls interaction is responsible for the superior monolayers chemical stability in highly corrosive oxidizing environments. The non-Nernstian corrosion process was studied under various anodic conditions and a mechanism for the self-limiting corrosion process was theorized. A new project in the area of ultra-low power electronics aimed at achieving faster transistor switching speeds below the 60mV/decade Boltzmann limit recently started. The new device design couples an electrostrictive dielectric material with a semiconducting TMD in a modified FET design. The piezoresistive behavior of the TMD materials will be harnessed in order to achieve faster transistor turn on speeds.

Poster #147: Center for Health Care and Policy Research

D. Scanlon

One of the seven research centers housed within the College of Health and Human Development, the Center for Health Care and Policy Research helps researchers interested in all aspects of health services and health care improvement. Through its mission the Center creates and disseminates new scientific knowledge helping private and public decision-makers develop cost effective services and programs that improve people's health. The field of health services research is dynamic and evolving, particularly at this time of rapid change and transition in the health policy landscape. CHCPR is committed to providing researchers with support to stay up-to-date and informed on innovative research related to improving health, advancing the quality of care, and reducing health care costs. CHCPR's list of services include helping researchers to find funding, make professional connections, develop quality research designs, collect and analyze data, and disseminate findings to the right audiences.

Poster #148: The Two-Dimensional Crystal Consortium - Materials Innovation Platform

J. M. Redwing, N. Samarth, V. H. Crespi, J. R. Robinson, E. W. Hudson, K. A. Dressler

The Two Dimensional Crystal Consortium - Materials Innovation Platform (2DCC-MIP) is an NSF-funded national user facility focused on the development of two dimensional (2D) chalcogenides for applications in next generation electronics. These materials include 2D transition metal dichalcogenide films that are only a few atoms thick, topological insulator bismuth chalcogenide films that only conduct on the 2D surface, and multilayers of dissimilar chalcogenide films. The 2DCC-MIP is developing advanced synthesis tools for chemical vapor deposition and hybrid molecular beam epitaxy equipped with real-time, in-situ characterization tools that probe the growth, electronic structure, and materials properties of atomically thin films. Additional facilities are available for bulk growth of layered chalcogenides to provide high quality crystals grown under near-equilibrium conditions. The experimental work is supported by a battery of theoretical techniques including molecular dynamics simulations and reactive force-field modeling to address the complex kinetic issues surrounding materials synthesis. The 2DCC-MIP is aimed at advancing the synthesis of known 2D monolayer films to the wafer scale, accelerating discovery of new 2D systems, and disseminating knowledge, samples, data and techniques within a national user facility that acts as a hub for scientific cross-fertilization. Faculty, researchers and students from academia, government laboratories and industry are encouraged to participate in the research through the 2DCC-MIP User Program which is aimed at creating a community of engaged researchers with expertise in 2D synthesis, characterization and theory/modeling.

Poster #149: Controlling Microstructure and Measuring Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Properties of Nanoscale Materials

B. Wang, A. Haque

The modern Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is a complete analytical tool with only one inconvenience -- it has a very small chamber size. The challenges in miniaturizing an entire experimental setup to fit in a 3 mm diameter footprint have been formidable, constraining in-situ TEM studies to mostly real time qualitative visualization. We approach the problem with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), a perfect foil for the TEM for quantitative testing. We present a setup capable of performing mechanical tests inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at elevated temperature up to 1000 °K. The MEMS device is fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and has integrated heaters, force sensors and thermal actuators. The device can be co-fabricated with thin films deposited on the wafer, as long as they can be patterned and subsequently released from the substrate to create freestanding uniaxial tension specimens. Young's modulus, fracture stress as well as stress-strain relationship of thin films at high temperatures can be demonstrated to visualize deformation and fracture mechanisms inside the TEM. The device is demonstrated on metal films as well as graphene, molybdenum di-sulfide and boron nitride. The advantage of the MEMS approach is the ability to multi-function in a single chip. We demonstrate thus by adding microelectrodes for in-situ measurement of thermal and electrical conductivity inside the TEM.

Poster #150: International Center for Actuators and Transducers (ICAT)

K. Uchino

Overview of the present research activities of International Center for Actuators and Transducers, MRI, Penn State.

Poster #151: Computational and Spatial Analysis Core

G. Chi, D. Nugent

The Computational and Spatial Analysis (CSA) Core of the Social Science and Population Research Institutes provides research support services spanning all stages of the funded research cycle. The CSA core strives to meet five specific aims: 1) to provide multifaceted data support and advice to population and social scientists; 2) to provide programming support, statistical expertise, and software packages for population research; 3) to provide expertise, services, and opportunities for novel research collaborations using spatial statistics and analysis; 4) to support and strengthen capacity to access and analyze microdata provided by Penn State's new Federal Statistical Research Data Center (RDC); and 5) to promote innovative population and social research using Big Data. Researchers can draw upon the extensive depth and breadth of the CSA core's talents and experiences to support research project activities including data management and custom programming for data analysis. In addition to traditional research methods, the CSA core promotes innovative population research using cutting-edge technologies and methodologies. The CSA core is a leader in the application of spatial statistics and analysis in social science research and is developing expertise with social networks and complex systems analysis. The CSA Core is also expanding into the use of Big Data for population research. The CSA core has been collecting worldwide geotagged Twitter data since 2013, so far accumulating more than 20 TB of data. Such data present significant opportunities for population estimates and research on topics such as community resilience, emergency management, transportation, and population health.

Poster #152: Spray-on Transducers for High-Temperature Applications Using Bismuth Titanate

K. R. Ledford, J. Xu, B. Tittmann

Monitoring the structural health of large valve bodies in high-temperature environments such as power plants faces several limitations: commercial transducers are not rated for such high-temperatures, gel couplants will evaporate, and measurements cannot be made in-situ. To solve this, Pennsylvania State University (PSU), sponsored by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has furthered the work of Barrow and Kobayashi's sol-gel method of applying a transducer in liquid form by making it more field-deployable: the sintering step is removed and the signal-to-noise ratio is improved using signal processing techniques. In addition, the high-temperature performance of the "spray-on" transducer is evaluated, which would allow in-situ monitoring of large valve bodies. The transducer material is composed of Bismuth Titanate and a binding solution, allowing application on complex geometries. Three chemical binders were evaluated: sol-gel, potato starch, and a proprietary high-temperature inorganic binder (IB). The BiT/IB combination provided the best results: stable for both reactive and non-reactive substrates, stable operating temperature above the safe operating temperature of PZT (150oC), and quick fabrication time. Furthermore, signal processing techniques can be used to enhance the SNR of the obtained signal to approach that of a commercial transducer.

Poster #153: µ-Pro: Phase-Field-Based Package for Modeling and Simulating Materials Microstructure and Properties

T. N. Yang, X. X. Cheng, Y. Z. Ji, J.-M. Hu, L.-Q. Chen

A phase-field-based package µ-Pro is being developed at Penn State to model microstructure evolution and predict material properties in a variety of material systems and devices. µ-Pro, microstructure-property modeling package, is a series of phase-field models implemented with modern fortran along with MPI, thus gaining native numerical and performance advantages. It excels in dealing with numerous types of problems, e.g.: Material response to an external field and effective material properties (mechanical, thermal, transport, piezoelectric, dielectric, etc) of an arbitrary single-phase or multi-phase microstructure; Domain structures and domain switching in ferroelectric, magnetic, ferroelastic and multiferroic systems and devices; Dielectric degradation and breakdown in capacitors; Microstructure evolution during structural and diffusional phase transformations, Ostwald ripening and grain growth in alloys; Ion transport and microstructure evolution in lithium ion batteries and solid oxide fuel cells; Dislocation/precipitate interactions and plasticity. The package also provides a built-in graphic user interface for simulation parameter input, as well as data visualization schemes for post-processing of output data. Such a versatile phase-field-based package would be helpful for studying and designing materials and devices for desired properties.

Poster #154: Microbiota Metabolism of Dietary Fiber Influences Its Beneficial Effect on Gut Health

V. Singh, B. S. Yeoh, R. Walker, J. Cai, L. Zhang, G. C. Shearer, A. D. Patterson, M. Vijay-Kumar

Natural dietary fiber serves as a substrate for gut microbiotal fermentation generating short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are thought to offer protection against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, certain fibers are known to cause moderate to severe intestinal side effects in IBD patients. We hypothesize that soluble fiber (inulin and pectin) which are more accessible for microbiotal fermentation may offer pronounced gut protective effects than insoluble fiber (cellulose). To demonstrate this, chronic colitis was induced in dietary cellulose, inulin or pectin fed C57BL/6 mice by administering three weekly injections of ?-IL-10R neutralizing antibody. Mice were euthanized two weeks after the last injection and colitis development was examined by serological, biochemical, histological and immunological parameters. WT mice receiving dietary cellulose along with ?-IL-10R mAb exhibited robust colitis as characterized by splenomegaly, colomegaly, elevated colonic MPO activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines (Kc, Il-1? & iNos), systemic and fecal Lcn2 levels (an inflammatory marker) and colon histology score when compared to control mice. Similar results were observed in toll-like receptor 5 knockout (Tlr5KO) mice which are prone to develop microbiota dependent spontaneous colitis. Surprisingly, prebiotic fiber inulin failed to protect against ?-IL-10R neutralization-induced chronic colitis in both WT and Tlr5KO mice. Interestingly, pectin ameliorates colitis development, supporting the notion that not all dietary fibers are created equal in modulating host gut inflammation. Analysis of cecal SCFA using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that the butyrate level was specifically augmented in the inulin-fed mice. However, future studies are required to elucidate whether the elevated cecal butyrate in the inulin-fed mice play a causative role in aggravating the colitis development in these mice. Additionally, mechanistic study on how pectin dampens gut inflammation may yield development of novel dietary therapeutics to treat human IBD.

Poster #155: In Situ Geochemical Analysis of a Neoarchean Stromatolite: Applying Microanalytical Techniques to Geologic Materials

P. D. Ilhardt, C. H. House, W. Altermann

Microprobe- and laser-based techniques such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy allow for the direct imaging and in situ analysis of solid sample targets at micrometer-scale resolution. Coupling enhanced sensitivity to heightened spatial resolution, such microanalytical methods acquire compositional, topographic, and mineralogical information from only nanograms of material without requiring complicated extraction procedures, highly-destructive analyses of sensitive samples, or error-prone preparation protocols. They also reveal information regarding micro-scale elemental or isotopic distributions (including trace or rare analytes) that is lost with traditional bulk sample measurement techniques. Using facilities managed by the Penn State Institutes of Energy and the Environment and Materials Research Institute (among others), we conducted a comprehensive geochemical analysis of morphologically-unique, organic-rimmed pyrite grains (~2-10 µm in diameter) embedded in the dolomitic lamina of a Neoarchean stromatolite from the Campbellrand Subgroup, South Africa (~2.52 Ga). Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of moderately-mature kerogen closely-associated with the disseminated pyrites, suggesting a biogenic influence on sulfide precipitation and shallow marine sulfur cycling. A suite of major and minor elements measured using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS confirmed authigenic enrichments of redox-sensitive and biochemically-relevant metals in pyrite precipitates relative to background matrices or secondary fluid intrusions. The presence of molybdenum, selenium, uranium and chromium (albeit in low concentrations) suggests some degree of oxidative continental weathering triggered by cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, while nickel, antimony, arsenic and cobalt levels perhaps point to a fluctuating nutrient supply in the Neoarchean ocean sourced by global tectonic and redox shifts. EPMA intensity maps further support a biologic origin for the pyrites but reveal metal-enriched veins that seemingly originated from post-depositional fluids. Finally, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) provided carbon and sulfur isotopic compositions that corroborate evidence for a diverse, ancient microbial community cycling atmospherically-derived sulfur in enclosed pore spaces. Autotrophic photosynthesizing organisms building stromatolites within expansive carbonate platforms likely served as an organic carbon source for sulfate reducing bacteria in the shallow sediments beneath a sulfate-limited Archean ocean. The preservation of sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures in the studied pyrites suggests oxygen production may have been localized and not sufficient to oxygenate Earth's atmosphere, but such fractionation likely relied on abundant atmospheric SO2 erupted from explosive, continent-building volcanism.

Poster #156: Raman Spectroscopy

M. Wetherington

With the advent of faster automation, enhanced detectors, and an increased Raman spectra database, more research fields are realizing the analytical power of Raman spectroscopy. This technique probes the vibration of molecules within a material and from this the composition, crystallinity, crystal orientation, stress/strain, and quantity can be identified. All sample types can be probed from solids to gases and insulating to conducting as long as there is a change in the polarizability tensor as a function of the vibration.

Poster #157: 2D Nitrides

Z. Y. Al Balushi, J. M. Redwing, J. A. Robinson

The spectrum of 2D and layered materials "beyond graphene" has been continually expanding. The realization of wide bandgap (Eg) 2D materials "beyond hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)", however, has been limited. Along similar lines to initial theoretical discovery and subsequent experimental synthesis of "beyond graphene" 2D materials (i.e. silicene and borophene), theoretical studies have suggested that indium nitride (InN), gallium nitride (GaN), and aluminum nitride (AlN) take on a 2D graphitic structure with a thickness tunable energy Eg (~0.7-7.0 eV) due to quantum confinement. Despite the extensive computational discovery of 2D materials, the experimental synthesis of wide Eg 2D nitrides "beyond hBN" on technologically relevant substrates still remains elusive. We have developed a novel growth scheme, known as Migration Enhanced Encapsulated Growth (MEEG)1, which utilizes the mechanism of intercalation via defects in graphene to stabilize wide Eg 2D materials that are not layered in bulk crystals. We demonstrate for the first time that 2D GaN not only can be stabilized, but also exhibits unique structural, optical and electrical properties from that of bulk material. Here we elucidate the mechanism of 2D nitride formation and discuss the ability of the interface of quasi-free standing epitaxial graphene (QFEG) in providing sufficient thermodynamic stabilization of the (direct Eg ~5 eV) 2D buckled structure of GaN (R3m space group symmetry). In the case of 2D GaN, a layer of gallium intercalates between the hydrogenated QFEG and the SiC substrate. The intercalated bilayer of gallium is converted to a quintuple monolayer of 2D GaN via nitrogen intercalation from decomposed NH3. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the atomic structure in 2D nitrides considerably impacts the stability and bandstructure. We verify the atomic structure by directly resolving the nitrogen and gallium atomic columns in 2D GaN using aberration corrected scanning TEM (STEM) in annular bright field (ABF) mode with supported ABF-STEM simulations. Our DFT calculations predict an energy Eg for 2D GaN in the range of 4.79-4.89 eV which correlates well with experimental results from UV-visible reflectance, absorption coefficient and low loss EELS measurements. Vertical transport measurements suggest 2D GaN acts as a Schottky barrier between graphene and SiC. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that 2D GaN is stable in air for at least 24 hours after removal of the graphene cap. Recognizing the impact of 2D nitrides, it can be expected that the addition of 2D GaN will enable new avenues for scientific exploration and electronic/optoelectronic device development. [1] Nature Materials (2016) doi:10.1038/nmat4742 *DMR-1420620 Seed Program through Penn State MRSEC-Center for Nanoscale Science

Poster #158: Selective Virus Trap Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays

Y.-T. Yeh, Y. Tang, A. Sebastian, A. Dasgupta, N. Perea-Lopez, I. Albert, H. Lu, S.-Y. Zheng, M. Terrones

Viral infectious diseases can erupt unpredictably, spread rapidly, and ravage mass populations. Although established methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation, and next generation sequencing (NGS) have been used to detect viruses, field samples with low virus count pose major challenges in virus surveillance and discovery. Here, we report a unique carbon nanotube size-tunable enrichment microdevice (CNT-STEM) that efficiently enriches and concentrates viruses collected from field samples. The channel sidewall in the microdevice was made by growing arrays of vertically aligned nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NMWCNTs), where the inter-tubular distance between CNTs could be engineered in the range of 17-325 nm to accurately match the size of different viruses. The CNT-STEM significantly improves detection limits and virus isolation rates by at least 100 times. With this device, we successfully identified an emerging AIV strain (A/duck/PA/02099/2012(H11N9)) and a novel virus (IBDV/Turkey/PA/00924/14). Our unique method clearly demonstrates the early detection of emerging viruses and the discovery of new viruses directly from field samples, thus creating a universal platform for effectively remediating viral infectious diseases.

Poster #159: The Neural Basis of Perceived Risk, Cognitive Constraint, and Expected Value in Temporal Instrumental Learning

M. N. Hallquist, A. Y. Dombrovski, K. Hwang, B. Luna

Objective: In complex value-based decision tasks, people are often averse to ambiguity, potentially reflecting limited representational capacity (e.g., Payzan-LeNestour & Bossaerts, 2011). In temporal instrumental tasks, however, some individuals may prefer uncertain options and recruit rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (Badre et al., 2011). In this study, we applied the StrategiC Exploration/exploitation of Temporal Instrumental Contingencies (SCEPTIC; Dombrovski & Hallquist, NeuroEcon 2016) model to characterize the neural basis of perceived risk, cognitive constraint, and expected value. Methods: Participants were 69 typically developing individuals (52% female; ages 14-30; M = 21.44, SD = 5.14) who completed 8 runs of a reinforcement-based timing task (Moustafa et al., 2008) during an fMRI scan (Siemens Tim Trio 3T; TR = 1.0s, TE = 30ms, 2.3mm isocubic voxels). Runs consisted of fifty trials in which a dot revolved 360° in 4 seconds. Participants pressed a button to obtain a probabilistic reward from a time-varying monotonic contingency. Behavioral data were fit using the SCEPTIC model, and HRF-convolved decision signals were entered in model-based fMRI analyses. fMRI data were analyzed using FILM + FLAME1 software (FSL 5.0.8) with voxel-wise p = .001 and cluster p = .05. Expected value = estimated value of the chosen response time; perceived risk = entropy of the expected value curve; and decay = AUC of value decay for unchosen response times due to cognitive constraint. Results: Choices histories reflected ambiguity-averse value-based decision-making with a cognitive constraint on the maintenance of action values. Perceived risk modulated the frontal eye fields and medial intraparietal sulcus. Value decay was associated with activity in the frontal operculum, DLPFC, lateral IPS, and putamen. Activity in the central orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex scaled parametrically with expected value. Reward prediction errors modulated the ventral striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial dorsal thalamus. Conclusions: In a complex temporal instrumental paradigm, we found that neural activity reflected canonical areas involved in value representation and reward prediction errors, as well networks implicated in cognitive control and working memory maintenance. Activity of the frontoparietal network increased in proportion to the perceived risk of choice, which may reflect transient recruitment of cognitive control (Dosenbach et al., 2007) when relative value differences are small. Decay in value representation due to cognitive constraint was represented by a lateral cognitive network, which aligns with the role of DLPFC in modulating working memory capacity in lateral IPS (Edin et al., 2009).

Poster #160: A Systems Analysis of Interdependent Infrastructure Among the Built Environment, Energy, and Transportation Systems in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Region

D. Farber, Y. Mordecai, M. Pietrucha, D. Dori

This presentation discusses a scenario and systems analysis of regional interdependent, critical infrastructure in the Philadelphia metropolitan region. The focus is an April 2015 workshop with infrastructure systems practitioners who represented the regional electric transmission organization, the regional transit organization, and the regional planning commission. The aim was to identify the relationships and vulnerabilities between cyber and physical systems and to map the systems with Object Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a leading, holistic, model-based system engineering method chartered in 2014 as ISO 19450. It is a tool that is used to clarify relationships among social and technical systems and how they may interact. The process serves to clarify communication, coordination, and decision making among the organizations responsible for critical infrastructure performance, resilience, and security. Figure 1 show the relationships identified in the workshop. The April workshop follows two previous workshops that used scenario planning and systems dynamics as methods to engage with practitioners and scope the problem space. A main challenge is developing among system practitioners and modelers a shared conception of the system of systems that strikes the right balance between levels of detail on the one hand and generality on the other that is useful for clarifying critical functional relationships.

Poster #161: Preparation and Characterization of Electronic and Energy Materials

S. E. Mohney, M. Abraham, A. C. Domask, S. Yu, H. Simchi, T. N. Walter, K. A. Cooley, A. Molina, C. Lawrence, I. Campbell

This poster provides an overview of metals and semiconductors we prepare and characterize for electronic devices and energy applications. Ongoing projects involve both 3D and layered chalcogenide semiconductors for photovoltaics or electronic circuits; novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures that may offer unique thermal, electronic, and optical properties; and catalytic oxides. Also highlighted is our characterization of the materials through microscopy and spectroscopy.

Poster #162: Bolstering the U.S. Air Force Behavioral Health Optimization Program

K. R. Hawkey, K. Brawley, D. F. Perkins

Historically, behavioral health care within the Air Force Medical System (AFMS) has been provided through various separate delivery systems (e.g., Military Treatment Facilities, military-specific mental health clinics, and private sector treatment options). Since 2000, the Behavioral Health Optimization Program (BHOP) has made substantial changes to the way the AFMS delivers health care. These changes have integrated mental health professionals, known as behavioral health consultants (BHCs) into primary care clinics in an effort to increase the quality and availability of behavioral health services available to all beneficiaries. The Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness (Clearinghouse) at Penn State has partnered with the Air Force Medical Operations Agency (AFMOA) to assist in: (1) bolstering the services BHOP provides; (2) building awareness of BHOP services to increase utilization; and (3) a qualitative examination of staffing roles and responsibilities. Through these efforts, the Clearinghouse is conducting several different research projects. 1. Beta Test of a Brief PTSD Intervention within BHOP. This project involves conducting a beta test of a brief PTSD intervention within BHOP. The Clearinghouse has conducted an extensive scan of the literature to identify a list of possible evidence-based interventions, and is working with AFMOA on its adaptation to the BHOP context, development of intervention protocol, and conducting a beta test of the intervention with 2-4 installations. 2. Development of Multi-Media Materials for Awareness Campaign for BHOP. This project involves the development of an awareness campaign promoting BHOP services to: (a) AF leadership; (b) medical providers; and (c) Service members and their families. In addition to a review of all available BHOP services, the Clearinghouse has finalized a multi-faceted marketing plan for this campaign. Materials to be developed include trainings, posters, brochures, and promotional videos. 3. Feasibility of Prescribing Behavioral Health Consultants (PBHC). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility and application of adding a PBHC into the Air Force's BHOP. The examination will explore the feasibility/applicability of a PBHC to enhance current medication management, and streamline the provision of mental health care, by providing verbal consultation on medication decisions, medication changes, and the management of routine side effects. 4. Primer Protocol Development to BHOP services. The goal over time is for BHOP to serve as the initial access point to all mental health care. This project involves the development of protocol primers of medical staff, such that their initial referral for a patient presenting mental health challenges is to BHOP and not the Mental Health Clinic.

Poster #163: Research at the Electroactive Materials Characterization Laboratory

S. Ahmed, M. D. A. Al Masud, T. Carroll, J. Kopatz, A. Foster III, A. Meddeb, M. A. Vecchio, N. Wyckoff, W. Zhang, Z. Ounaies

Research at the Electroactive Materials Characterization Laboratory (EMCLab) focuses on processing-microstructure-property relationships in polymer-based smart materials. Our goal is to develop materials exhibiting unique combinations of mechanical, electrical and coupled properties for sensing, actuation and energy storage. Our current projects cover the range below. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer nanocomposites are promising candidates to overcome the limitations of monolithic materials; significant improvement levels can be achieved by incorporating high surface area particles in polymer matrices. Chemically modifying the nanoparticles leads to the ability to tune the expansive surface area and therefore dramatically enhance the effective properties using very low particle contents. Additionally, we demonstrate that manipulation of the particles using mechanical and electric fields is a big step towards spatially engineering and designing material systems for prescribed performance. Active fiber composites (AFCs) for sensing and actuation: AFCs are long circular piezoelectric ceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy polymer, where the electric field lines are parallel to the fiber direction instead of through-the-thickness. AFCs can be used in several applications for self-health monitoring, vibration control and energy harvesting. Full experimental characterization of the commercial composites and finite element modeling with parametric study on the design parameters are conducted in order to maximize the performance of new flexible electro-active composites. Multi-field responsive origami-inspired structures: The objective is to develop multi-field active materials yielding on-demand large bending and folding. A variety of electroactive polymers and polymer nanocomposites are being developed and investigated to realize active origami-inspired structures using a combination of experimental materials development, analytical and FEA modeling and multiscale characterization. Polymer composite for low dose nuclear threat detection: A novel approach is being developed to actively detect shielded special nuclear materials (SSNM) while in transit with a relocatable low dose system. Several composite detectors composed of a poly(vinyl) toluene as the scintillating matrix and GS20 lithium glass in different geometries are being manufactured and characterized. Multilayer polymer laminates for high energy density and low loss dielectrics: The objective of this project is to study the breakdown behavior of multilayered polymer laminates under pulsed conditions and at low and high temperatures. Findings will inform the development of novel polymer-based capacitors with high dielectric permittivity, low dielectric loss and high energy density. An important expected outcome is that the multilayered laminates will enhance capacitor and cable reliability at high temperature because dielectric failure paths are deflected at the many barrier interfaces

Poster #164: Nucleic Acid Release in Biological Applications via Photo-Cleaveage and Enhanced by Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles Using Second Harmonic Generation

M. Abulaban, R. Kumal, L. Haber, D. Hayes

Post-transcriptional gene regulation plays a pertinent role in biological pathways such as tumor growth control, cell differentiation and other processes. The delivery of these gene sequences, or oligonucleotides, has become an extensive area of research for localized therapeutic treatments. Photochemical release of the desired drug via a nanoparticle vehicle system has been studied, demonstrating the successful photocleaving of 148b miRNA from the surface at the distinct wavelength of the PC linker molecule at 365nm. The current PC chemistry limits the systems potential to applications at or near tissue surfaces. The proposed study investigated the plasmon-enhanced release of the oligonucleotides by broadening the effective wavelength for photolysis. Using second harmonic generation spectroscopy, rate of release of the miRNA was higher at longer wavelengths, up to 460nm, with silver nanoparticles compared to gold and polystyrene nanoparticles, as well as four times higher at 365nm. This indicates that the oligonucleotide release is boosted by the plasmon of the silver nanoparticles.

Poster #165: The Establishment of a Multidisciplinary Imaging Consortium

D. J. Vanselow, K. C. Cheng

Exciting graphical representations of science cannot be used to effectively educate or generate enthusiasm for research unless they are hosted and distributed from a single location that is readily and easily accessible by both the academic and public alike. Generating interest in research within the university and amongst the non-scientific community is paramount in maintaining not only public interest and funding, but facilitating inter-departmental, and cross institutional collaborations. We propose the creation of an Imaging Consortium, a web-based community resource aimed at making scientific visualizations highly accessible to all end-users. Preexisting web-based resources developed and tested by Dr. Keith Cheng's Lab (info available at will allow us to build upon and refine an already operational, highly functional foundation. We plan to implement and improve existing tools to pan, zoom and navigate simply and intuitively across high resolution images. The adaptation to cross-disciplinary sourced imagery is simple, as these tools are readily expandable into almost any facet of visual data, be it in 2-D or 3-D space. The remote annotation of structures/motifs of interest by the scientific community will be used to enhance the website and to effectively facilitate individual and collaborative investigations. Long term, we are offering a web driven vehicle by which public and academic users, including prospective faculty and students, experience Penn State University's historical and cutting edge visual research, be that through genuine discovery, visualization, comparative informatics and/or self-enrichment. We imagine a world where any individual with access to a computer and a web browser can interface with the consortium to explore science intuitively at its most thrilling.

Poster #166: Predicting the Coevolution of Microstructure and Material Properties to Optimize Performance

M. R. Tonks, M. F. Sessim, F. W. Hilty, S. Zhang, A. A. Rezwan, J. A. Hirschhorn, P. C. Simon, I. T. Greenquist

The Microstructure Science and Engineering Laboratory from the Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, lead by Professor Michael Tonks, uses computational materials science approaches at the mesoscale to predict the coevolution of microstructure and physical properties in materials under harsh environments. Simulations at the mesoscale are then used to inform the development of mechanistic continuum scale materials models that can be used in more traditional engineering scale simulations to investigate part performance in these harsh conditions. These models can also be used to design microstructures that will optimize performance of materials to ensure proper performance during operation. In this poster, we demonstrate these approaches on various applications, including nuclear reactor fuel and cladding the impact of surface roughness on wetting behavior.

Poster #167: A Galaxy of Cities: Creating Regional Constellations from Urban Migrants

X. Liu, C. Andris

The urban hierarchy has been studied for decades: larger cities are connected to small cities with medium size cities as intermediaries, with exceptions that allow small cities to connect directly to local metropolis. A connection is a dependency crystalized as flows of commodities and people--such as human migration. To examine the U.S. inter-city migration system, we create directional networks of U.S. core-based statistical areas where the each node has one edge coming out of it (outdegree equals 1) in each network. Cities link to the most popular destination city of its out-migrants for a given year, where this destination city is the origin city's 'best friend'. Data is sourced from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service. The resultant networks are not fully connected but instead join cities into graph motifs or "constellations" within the galaxy of cities. We visualize these networks and create subnetworks based on wealth discrepancies--what city do the wealthy flock to, and what city do the deprived flock to? We find that the network of poorer migrants reveals a chain of local movements, which is substantially different than that of wealthy migrants, who migrate to hub cities.

Poster #168: Pairing Geochemical and Geophysical Observations of Weathering in a 70m Borehole in South Carolina

V. Marcon, S. Brantley

Biogeochemical and physical processes transform intact unweathered rock into weathered bedrock and soil. The porous material overlying unweathered rock is known as regolith, and includes all the weathered rock, saprolite, and soil. Regolith is part life-sustaining layer of the Earth is commonly referred to as the critical zone. Regolith can record long-term interactions in the critical zone and is often studied to understand the processes that transform rock to soil. This study pairs imaging techniques (microprobe, SEM, and optical microscopy) with geochemical and seismic data to evaluate the development of the critical zone in a granitic gneiss in South Carolina. Seismic data provides a big picture image of the critical zone (km scale); whereas, the geochemistry of the core provides a much smaller scale (micron to cm) of weathering. Geochemical data can 1) validate seismic observations and 2) provide a more detailed image of weathering processes. Whole rock chemistry and mineral chemistry, which was determined by microprobe, were used to develop a mineral model of the borehole. The model was constrained by SEM, XRD, and optical mineralogy observations. Generally, changes in seismic velocity respond to changes in density of the rock. As a rock weathers and material is lost in solution, the density decreases. A sharp boundary in the seismic data was observed around 28m below the surface and was interpreted to be the transition from unweathered bedrock to regolith. This transition correlates with the loss of plagioclase and an oxidation front. This study, for the first time, confirms the geophysical interpretation of a chemical weathering front.

Poster #169: Penn State'S Population Research Institute: How Demographic Research Helps Us Make Sense of a Rapidly Changing World

M. L. Frisco, J. Glick, J. Van Hook

Penn State's Population Research Institute is a national leader in understanding U.S. population dynamics and population problems. This vibrant, multidisciplinary center brings together over 80 faculty researchers whose high-impact work is regularly used to inform important issues facing policy makers, industry, and local, national and international communities. Our poster will highlight some of the important work PRI faculty are doing, including: Research on impact of energy infrastructure development that examines how Marcellus Shale development is influencing the economic well-being of families and the health of children in areas in New York and Pennsylvania; Research on migrant workers that has been used to improve farmworker safety; Educational research projects on STEM education that have helped explain why U.S. children are falling behind in this area and have been used in White House education briefings and research on diversity in America's schools that have been used in U.S. Congressional briefings; Immigration research that has been used to inform President Obama's immigration policy; Population health research on issues such as factors that have contributed to the heroin crisis in the U.S. and especially in rural areas, HPV vaccine uptake by young women in the U.S., and ways that the introduction of grocery stores into a neighborhood influences health; Geographic analysis aimed at investigating how cities can better respond to catastrophic events and natural disasters; The development of a "Portrait of America" that highlights U.S. population demographics and demographic change over the last 60 years; Methodological research aimed at better understanding how to harness the power of twitter data and accurately "measure" the reach of communities and neighborhood for diet and exercise; ...and much much more. Our faculty includes top scholars who have been recognized: As top U.S. university scholars influencing education policy and practice; For distinguished careers in Demography; As having the most cited articles in their field; As leading early career experts. Together, PRI researchers are working together across disciplinary boundaries to better understand global and U.S. demographic changes and the consequences they have for policy, industry, communities, families, and individuals.

Poster #170: Surface Features Parameterization and Equivalent Roughness Height Estimation of a Real Subglacial Conduit in the Arctic

Y. Chen, X. Liu, K. D. Makoff, J. D. Gulley

The global warming has accelerated the ice losses from glaciers and the ice sheets in the past 25 years, resulting in an average global sea level rise by 2.8mm/y, affecting the global ocean circulation and regional climate and ecosystems. Among all of those ice losses, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), contributing 12% of the total sea level rise as a single unit, is especially important, thus drawing more attentions from the public and scientists. There have been many studies focusing on the surface and near-surface ice-melting processes, however, few studies can be found on the subglacial systems due to the difficulties of acquiring data in subglacial conduits. To enhance our understanding of the subglacial drainage system, we climbed down into a subglacial conduit under the Arctic, and obtained a high-resolution 3D surface of the conduit by using the structure-from-motion method and a novel sensor. A series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are then performed based on such a real geometry. Further analyses on the conduit surface data reveal that the surfaces of subglacial conduits are very complex, coupling multi-scale roughness, large sinuosity, and cross-sectional variations together. Those features significantly affect the friction law and drainage efficiency inside the conduit, thus posing considerable influences on the dynamic development of the conduit. To quantitatively understand the hydraulic influences of those features, we first parameterized those surface features by developing a Matlab package to extract the roughness field, the conduit centerline, and associated area and curvature data from the conduit surface. By using those data, the characteristic vertical and horizontal roughness scales are estimated based on the structure functions. The centerline sinuosities, defined through three concepts, i.e., the traditional definition of a fluvial river, entropy-based sinuosity, and curvature-based sinuosity, are also calculated and compared. The cross-sectional area and equivalent circular diameter along the centerline are also calculated. Among those features, the roughness is especially important due to its pivotal role in determining the wall friction, and thus an estimation of the equivalent roughness height is of great importance. To achieve such a goal, we further simplified the original conduit surface into a straight smooth pipe with the same volume and centerline length, the roughness field obtained above is then reconstructed into the simplified pipe. An OpenFOAM-based Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is then performed based on the reconstructed pipe. Considering that the Reynolds number is of the order 10^6, and the relative roughness is larger than 5% for 60% of the conduit, we test the validity of the resistance law for completely rough pipes. Based on such a resistance law and the pressure drop and mean velocity in the simulation, we estimated the equivalent roughness height.

Poster #171: Model-Based Data Assimilation and Control of Sleep-Wake Regulation in Epilepsy

C. G. Tulyaganova, M. W. Billard, F. Bahari, B. J. Gluckman, K. D. Alloway

Sleep is implicated in the expression of many neurological disease manifestations, and sleep disruption often accompanies neurological diseases. For example, persons with epilepsy will often have highest seizure rates at particular phases of their sleep-wake cycles, but will also suffer from poor sleep. Neurophysiological evidence indicates that sleep is regulated by a network of cell groups in the brainstem. This network acts to modulate cortical arousal and activity levels, and receives feedback on the metabolic state of the cortex. The sleep-dependent activities of these cell groups, and their interactions have been incorporated into mathematical models. But beyond summary first order statistics, such models - and their computational embodiments - have not been validated. Consequentially, the models could not be utilized to discern the interaction between sleep and neurolological disorders. We have been adapting data assimilation tools to computational neuroscience models to allow sophisticated model fitting, reconstruction of physiological state, and state forecasting from neurophysiological recordings. Here we describe our efforts at linking computational models of sleep regulation to measurements of neural activity from freely behaving animals. To achieve this goal, our efforts include extensive modeling efforts; design of novel recording technologies to target to, and micro-manipulate electrodes within, multiple deep brain structures simultaneously along non-parallel axes; and perform chronic long term recordings in normal and epileptic animals. Our objectives in this work are not only to validate these models, but to elucidate the interaction between epileptic networks and sleep regulation and identify minimal impact interventions.

Poster #172: Health and Human Development Design for Impact Lab (HUDDIL)

M. Small, K. Jablokow, E. Waterman, J. Menold

The Health and Human Development Design for Impact Lab (HUDDIL) was established to facilitate research translation from basic science to intervention development and testing to scale up and widespread adoptions. HUDDIL members believe in challenging the status quo so that research is useful to many people everyday. HUDDIL's goal is to decrease the time between discoveries in social science, engineering design, and information sciences research and their broader social impact so that many more people can benefit from the important work of the College and the University. We work across disciplines and with internal and external partners to (1) Collaborate on translational research by consulting and publishing on human centered design and innovative methods and designing and testing novel solutions; (2) Train a new generation of changemakers through project-driven learning involving human centered design methods and innovative research methodologies and (3) Connect the Colleges' discoveries with partners who can help scale them (new product or service development). Working across developmental stages and settings our projects include innovative designs and/or research methodologies. Recently we designed a digital check-in system for childcare and early learning centers that integrates evidence-base social and emotional (SEL) skill development while capturing data and connecting it to applicable funding agencies while reducing staff time and burden. While designing novel solutions to advance SEL and STEM skills for children in German refugee contexts, we simultaneously tested the validity of using sociometric badges developed at MIT to collect children's interactions and reduce the time and cost of labor intensive video coding. Innovative research methods used in HUDDIL include latent class analyses, latent transition analyses, and ecological momentary assessments. Several planned studies will incorporate wearable and sensing devices beyond the sociometric badges. Finally, HUDDIL helps faculty, students, and industry partners connect with design and innovation resources on campus. HUDDIL currently has 16 members representing three colleges including Engineering, Health and Human Development, and Information Sciences and Technology.

Poster #173: The Grow! Parenting Program: A Hybrid Type III Design Study

J. M. DiNallo, M. Czymoniewicz-Klippel, R. Chesnut, D. F. Perkins

Background: The development and dissemination of evidence-based parenting programs is a major focus of researchers and practitioners in the social and behavioral sciences. Traditionally, these programs have focused on enhancing specific parenting skills, such as assertive discipline and labeled praise, in an attempt to improve parent and child mental health outcomes. The Grow! parenting program (Grow!), for parents of five- to eight-year olds, emphasizes these same parenting skills, but is unique in that it also underscores evidence-informed stress management and health promotion skills (e.g., child feeding, physical activity, and screen time behaviors) in an effort to impact parent and child health holistically. Methods: In 2015, a Hybrid Type III design study was conducted in two Pennsylvanian communities. Implementation data were collected from facilitators and participants throughout program delivery and at program completion. Treatment data were collected from participants at pretest, posttest, three-month, and six-month follow-up using measures assessing positive parenting practices, stress management, and health promotion. Responses from 15 participants who completed measures at all four time points were analyzed using Friedman's ANOVAs and appropriate follow-up tests. Findings: Overall, participants and facilitators were satisfied with the program. Participants were engaged during the sessions and indicated the material was useful. Facilitators also delivered the program with a high degree of fidelity (i.e., adherence rating = 94%). Repeated measures analyses showed statistically significant (p < .05) improvements on several stress management and health promotion measures with some parenting measures approaching significance (p < .10). Effect sizes (i.e., r) for significant outcomes ranged from .29 to .48. Implications for D&I Research: Dissemination and implementation research seeks to translate knowledge into practice. This study contributes to that mission by expanding the focus of parent programming to include evidence-informed stress management and health promotion strategies. The findings demonstrate that implementing Grow! with fidelity in community populations is feasible and well-received. In addition, the results indicate Grow! has the potential to produce changes in stress management and health promotion outcomes. These findings will help to stimulate greater thinking about how best to develop, disseminate, and evaluate parenting programs that influence all aspects of children's health.

Poster #175: Children's Executive Functions in Kindergarten Predict Their Academic Achievement and Classroom Behavior in Second Grade

P. L. Morgan, W. P. Pun, G. Farkas, M. M. Hillemeier, S. Maczuga

Whether children's executive functions contribute to their academic achievement and classroom behavior, and so constitute possible targets of early intervention efforts, is currently unclear. The investigators used multi-year data from a population-based sample (N = 8,440), multiple measures of kindergarten children's executive functions as well as their achievement and behavior, and statistical control for potential confounds to examine these hypothesized relations. The children's executive functions, and in particular working memory, repeatedly predicted their academic achievement and classroom behavior in second grade. This was despite extensive statistical control for prior academic achievement, behavior, other types of executive functions, and the children's sociodemographic backgrounds. Working memory and other types of executive functions constitute promising targets of interventions designed to increase children's later school functioning.

Poster #176: The PCSI Center at Penn State (Photonics for Communication, Sensing, and Illumination)

The PCSI Team

The organization and research thrusts of the PCSI center will develop and nurture long-term collaborations between industry, academia, and government. The focused PCSI vision is to integrate, enable, and commercialize optical communication, sensing, and illuminating systems via overlapping research in advanced photonic materials, devices, packaging, and operation. This center, currently comprised of over 20 active faculty across 10 departments and 3 colleges, provides an inter-connected, solid foundation for user-inspired fundamental research in 3 primary thrust areas: 1) Free Space Optical Communication, 2) Specialized/Photonic and Plastic Fiber, 3) Remote Sensing and Optical Interrogation The center's industry/government lab members benefit from long-term partnerships, access to students, resources/equipment/expertise, workforce development, continuing education, & networking opportunities. PCSI (pronounced "pixie") is an evolving effort; updated info can be found at

Poster #177: Atomic: Creating and Exploring Atomically-Thin Materials in Partnership with Industry

M. Terrones, J. Robinson, J. Lou, P. Ajayan

The Center for Atomically Thin Multifunctional Coatings (ATOMIC) is a joint venture between Penn State and Rice University supported through the I/UCRC program at NSF. The mission of the Center is to conduct leading international and multidisciplinary research on atomically thin materials aiming at finding new phenomena and applications that could be transformed into high impact products. The center offers a unique, vertically integrated research education to graduate and undergraduate students, with extremely valuable components including state-of-the-art infrastructure, and research environment. ATOMIC currently has 7 projects guided by 13 members that focus on a range of topics including scalable ATOMIC, protective coatings, energy storage and conversion, reliability, water purification, and biocompatibility. Stop by to learn more about the center and how the work going on within the center can advance a wide spectrum of today's technologies.

Poster #178: The Pennsylvania State University Nanofab Laboratory Capabilities

K. A. Gehoski, G. P. Lavallee, W. R. Drawl, C. M. Eichfeld, S. Trolier-McKinstry

The Penn State Nanofabrication Laboratory (Nanofab) is a fully staffed user research facility offering more than 70 nanofabrication and characterization tools that enable fabrication and characterization of a wide range of devices to support fundamental and applied research. Researchers from Penn State, other universities, government labs, and industry take advantage of the expertise and world-class facilities of the Materials Research Institute's Nanofabrication Laboratory. Located in the Millennium Science Complex, the Nanofab provides faculty, students, and industry researchers access to sophisticated instruments for micro-and nanofabrication. The Nanofab's 10,000-square-foot state-of-the-art cleanroom is supported by 6,000 square feet of space for utilities in the subfab. The Penn State Nanofab offers expertise in "top-down" (e.g. deposition, etching) and "bottom up" (e.g. self- assembling films) nanofabrication. The technical staff provides extensive support and training or can perform research on behalf of industry partners. More than 70+ materials can be deposited and dry etched in the suite of tools in the facility. The Lithography tools are capable of writing sub nanometer features on a variety of substrates, including curved surfaces. The laboratory is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year for trained users. This poster highlights the state-of-the-art equipment that resides in the 10,000 square foot cleanroom and the unique capabilities of the equipment.

Poster #179: Progress Toward Structural Understanding of Cellulose Synthesis by Plants

B. T. Nixon, M. Kumar M, J. Du, S. H. Cho, C. H. Haigler, K. Mansouri, J. K. Davis, E. Slabaugh, H. O'Neill, V. G. Vandavasi, E. M. Roberts, A. W. Roberts, Y. G. Yingling, A. Singh, J.-G. Lee, J. Zimmer, P. Pallinti, V. Bulone, S. Diaz.

A six-lobed membrane spanning cellulose synthesis complex (CSC) containing multiple cellulose synthase (CESA) glycosyltransferases mediates cellulose microfibril formation. The number of CESAs in the CSC has been debated for decades in light of changing estimates of the diameter of the smallest microfibril formed from the ß-1,4 glucan chains synthesized by one CSC. In a highly collaborative effort, CLSF members have applied a combination of methods including improved FF-TEM (Haigler, Roberts, Roberts, Davis, Mansouri), 2D image classification and averaging (Nixon, Du), analysis of small angle X-ray scattering data (O'Neill, Vandavasi, Nixon), negative stain TEM (Nixon, Du, O'Neill, Vandavasi), and computational modeling (Yingling, Singh, Lee) to study the low resolution structure of rosettes from the nonvascular plant Physcomitrella patens and of the cytosolic or catalytic domain of CESA1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. We learned that the inner membrane portion of CESA in rosette lobes are frequently triangular, and their areas fit well with trimers of CESA. Trimeric oligomers of two alternative CESA computational models corresponded well with individual lobe geometry. A six-fold assembly of the trimeric computational oligomer had the lowest potential energy per monomer and was consistent with rosette CSC morphology. We also found in negative stain TEM that the cytosolic domain of AtCESA1 is triangular and of a size that fits well to modeling of SAXS data that we recently published (Plant Physiology). Six trimeric SAXS models nearly filled the space below an average FF-TEM image of the rosette CSC. In summary, the data support a rosette CSC with 18 CESAs that mediates the synthesis of a fundamental microfibril composed of 18 or fewer glucan chains. These results are published (Scientific Reports) and will be presented together with progress on 3D reconstruction of the AtCESA1 catalytic domain from negative stain and cryoEM images of single particles. At the same time, we (Nixon, Kumar, Cho) have applied negative stain TEM in collaboration with CLSF groups at the University of Virginia (Zimmer, Pallinti) and the ORNL (O'Neill, Vandavasi) to characterize the CESA-dependent formation of cellulose microfibrils in vitro. Negative stain TEM results will be presented to convey progress toward achieving a reconstituted enzyme/phospholipid system that makes cellulose microfibrils and is amenable to 3D reconstruction by single particle cryoEM. Some of this work has been published (Biochemical Journal).

Poster #180: Persistently Low Science Achievement in U.S. Schools: Multiyear Longitudinal Trajectories and Early Risk Factors

P. L. Morgan, G. Farkas, Y. Oh, M. M. Hillemeier, S. Maczuga

Large science achievement gaps occur in the U.S. Yet which young children are most at risk for persistently low science achievement is unknown. To better inform early screening and intervention efforts for those most at risk, we used growth mixture modeling to analyze the general knowledge and science achievement trajectories of a population-based sample of 7,177 U.S. schoolchildren followed from kindergarten to eighth grade. Kindergarten children with limited general knowledge about the world were at risk for low science achievement by third grade. Experiencing low science achievement by third grade increased children's risk of persistently low science achievement throughout elementary and middle school. Lower reading and mathematics achievement or behavioral self-regulation uniquely predicted persistently low general knowledge during the primary grades and persistently low science achievement during the elementary and middle school grades. Parenting quality predicting persistently higher science achievement. Children who are racial or ethnic minorities, females, or are from less economically resourced families were at increased risk for persistently low levels of general knowledge and science achievement. Preventing persistently low science achievement by the elementary and middle school grades may require coordinated policies and practices, including those targeting at-risk children's general knowledge, reading, and mathematics achievement by the primary grades.

Poster #181: Citrate-Based Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine

G. B. Kim, J. Yang

In recent years, citrate-based biomaterials have become an intense focus of research in the search of new functional biomaterials for solving pressing medical problems. Citric acid, a historically known intermediate in the Krebs cycle, is a multifunctional, nontoxic, readily available, and inexpensive cornerstone monomer used in designing our citrate-based biomaterials. In addition to the convenient citrate chemistry for the syntheses of a number of versatile polymers that may be elastomeric or mechanically strong and tough, injectable and photocrosslinkable, fluorescent and MR imaging-able, and/or tissue adhesive, citric acid also presents inherent anti-bacterial and anti-clotting characteristics, which make citrate-based biomaterials ideal for a number of medical applications. Furthermore, more recent studies have revealed the intriguing biological links of citrate to tissue regeneration, especially to bone regeneration. All these features make citrate-based biomaterials as the materials of choice for many applications in regenerative medicine that are worth further developing. Herein, methodologies for the design and biomedical applications of citrate biomaterials will be discussed. Specific examples to be showcased include vascular grafts, bone implants, nerve guides, micro/nano-composites for orthopedic devices, bioinspired adhesives for wound healing, materials/cells/tissue for bioimaging, immune cell-mediated cancer drug delivery systems, and chloride sensor for cystic fibrosis diagnosis.

Poster #183: Functional Nanoscale Biomimetic Materials

A. Pena-Francesch, H. Jung, M. Vural, R. Shreiner, B. Barbu, B. Allen, M. C. Demirel

The Demirel lab research focuses on the design, fabrication and synthesis of protein-based advanced materials by studying the functional transitions of biomimetic systems both computationally and experimentally. In particular, Demirel's research team is currently investigating the self-assembly and physical properties of strong teeth that have evolved in the tentacles of squid species. These Squid Ring Teeth (SRT) are comprised of a structural protein that can be extracted from the tentacles and exhibits an unusual reversible transition from solid to rubber. By combining genomics, proteomics and material science, we have developed SRT protein mimics that self-assemble into high-strength materials capable of self-healing that can be shaped into any 3D geometry. These synthetic protein-based materials find applications as bioadhesives, high strength optical fibers, self-healing textiles and selective membranes among others.

Poster #184: Computational Materials System Design

Z. K. Liu

This poster presents a brief introduction of Phases Research Laboratory ( at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. The lab's research activities are centered on first-principles calculations, modeling of thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and their integration in understanding defects, phase stability, and phase transformations, and designing and tailoring processing and properties of structural and functional materials. The main methodologies in our multi-scale/multi-component computational approaches are graphically described. Those activities have been supported by Nation Science Foundation, Office of Navy Research, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, U.S. Air Force, National Energy Technology Lab, Lynntech, Inc., and many company members through NSF Center for Computational Materials Design, with some projects briefly described in this poster. Through a range of travel funds, students and research fellows in our group attend a great amount of domestic and international conferences and workshops to present their research discoveries and interact with leading scientists in the fields.

Poster #185: Predicting the Response of Pseudocapacitive Electrodes Under Realistic Conditions from First-Principles

N. D. Keilbart, A. Feehan, Y. Okada, S. Higai, I. Dabo

Energy storage devices that are able to store large amounts of energy as well as discharge that energy at a fast rate are of particular interest in industry and for the general populace. Pseudocapacitors are one such energy device that is characterized by fast and reversible redox reactions. We simulate the response of pseudocapacitive electrodes under electrochemical conditions to identify the factors that endow them with their exceptionally high charge capacity with a focus on ruthenium dioxide as a prototypical material. Electronic-structure methods are used together with a self-consistent continuum solvation model to build an extensive database of free energies as the surface of the material is gradually covered with ions under applied voltage. This approach provides a widely applicable quantum-continuum framework for examining the intrinsic properties of pseudocapacitive oxides and for manipulating these materials at the structural level to maximize their performance. Using this method, a large number of different surface configurations of protons are simulated on the (110) surface of RuO2 where the adsorption energy and potential of the unit cell are extracted. Combining these results with a grand-canonical Monte Carlo method, where environmental factors are taken into account such as voltage and the double-layer capacitance, a larger surface is simulated to look at the configurational entropy of the surface. Plotting the response of the system under varying environmental conditions, the surface coverage, charge and voltage are compared. Different trends emerge as the environmental conditions are changed. As double-layer capacitance is increased the starting coverage of the system decreases and the point of desorption moves to lower voltages. A similar response is seen for the charge as a function of voltage. When examining the charge-coverage graph it is seen that the slope of the line increases slightly and then has a large change from the 1:1 slope. To compare with experimental results, a voltammogram is converted to a charge-voltage graph by integrating the area underneath the curve to obtain the integrated current and then is compared to theory. Upon comparison with theory, it is found that the simulation with a capacitance value of 10 uF/cm2 matched most closely. The slopes of the line overlap and have a similar change in slope at the same voltage. Other values of capacitance, such as 0 uF/cm2, gave a varyingly different slope which did not match. Thus it can be seen that without the inclusion of a model that takes into account the environmental response of the system, such as voltage and capacitance, there would be a poor prediction of the charge storage mechanism.

Poster #186: The Program for Translational Research on Adversity and Neurodevelopment (P-TRAN)

E. J. Rose, D. H. Fishbein

The Program for Translational Research on Adversity and Neurodevelopment (P-TRAN) uses a combined transdisciplinary and translational neuroscience approach as the foundation for cutting edge prevention research. The ultimate goal is for our research to exert a significant and lasting beneficial impact on child development, family functioning, and community scaffolding. We aim to promote resilience and reduce the risk for adverse outcomes by: (1) Developing an integrated network of transdisciplinary collaborators focused on delineating the impact of adversity on neurodevelopment and the meaningful translation of this knowledge to the development of practices and policies, (2) Creating a center of excellence for translational neuroscience within the Prevention Research Center, at Pennsylvania State University, which will promote the application of neuroscientific knowledge and techniques to prevention science and provide a supportive environment for productive translational and transdisciplinary collaborations. P-TRAN's primary objective is to develop a supportive translational research infrastructure for a "community" of crosscutting scientists. This community will work in concert to address critical issues in prevention research, practice and policy. Fostering collaborations across disciplines at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), from the basic sciences to the social and intervention sciences and, in turn, to practice and policy, will streamline the transfer of information and amplify impact, placing P-TRAN, the Prevention Research Center (PRC) and the University at the forefront of progress in the field.

Poster #187: Origin of Andesites at Hasandag, Central Turkey: Timescales of Mixing and Eruption

J. H. Cipar, H. D. Gall, T. Furman

Hasanda stratovolcano in central Turkey has lavas that range in composition from basalt to dacite (49-67 wt.% SiO2) and include abundant andesites (55-63 wt.% SiO2). Here, we explore the genesis of these intermediate compositions as they are argued to play an important role in the formation and evolution of the continental crust. Intermediate hand samples display evidence for early-stage magma mingling in the form of ~3-6 cm fine-grained inclusions. First order bulk geochemical trends suggest fractionation as the dominant process controlling evolution among the majority of analyzed lavas, but variations in key major element oxides and trace elements (TiO2, P2O5, V) reveal that andesites occupy a region of compositional space, which appears to require physical mixing between mafic and felsic endmembers. We explore the mechanisms of mixing processes through detailed petrographic and electron microprobe analysis of plagioclase and olivine crystal traverses, and present model results on magma ascent rates from mantle to surface as well as crustal mixing timescales. In thin section, the intermediate lavas preserve features associated with thermo-chemical disequilibrium, which include sieve textured plagioclase with clear crystal rims and assemblages of embayed quartz phenocrysts surrounded by pyroxene jackets indicative of resorption and reaction. Composition data from ~20 plagioclase crystals collected on the electron microprobe in four samples reveal that andesites include both anomalously calcic (An60-70) and sodic (An30-45) plagioclase as well as highly forsteritic olivine (? Fo83). Two distinct populations of plagioclase are documented: Population 1 are defined by large, tabular crystals with complex internal structures, where anorthite-poor cores (An30-45) are partially dissolved and surrounded by anorthite-rich rims (~An55-60), and Population 2, which consist of small (0.5 mm), lath-like and normally-zoned euhedral crystals that range from An60-70. Population 2 crystal rims (~50-100 microns) closely resemble Population 1 and are marked by sharp increases in MgO, TiO2, FeO and anorthite. The distinct compositions suggest that Population 1 crystals grew initially in an evolved melt while Population 2 crystals formed in equilibrium with mafic melts. We model the diffusional equilibration of magnesium across the core-rim boundary within Population 1 feldspars to assess mixing to eruption timescales. Primitive olivine (Fo>85) is common in the andesites and requires mixing of diverse compositions. Rare olivine crystals contain reversals in nickel concentration, which can be used to measure mantle to surface ascent rates of the parental recharge magmas. Data from olivines within the mafic compositions are also modeled to better constrain these ascent rates. Thermobarometric calculations constrain structure and temperature conditions of the complex magmatic system that gives rise to the observed textural variations and mineral assemblages.

Poster #188: Strategic Interdisciplinary Research Office

K. Lemon, L. Mulfinger

The Strategic Interdisciplinary Research Office (SIRO) is a research administration unit of the Office of the Vice President for Research that is organized to facilitate the development of grant proposals, and provide pre-award and post-award administrative support for large and strategic projects at Penn State. Supported projects typically involve significant efforts from multiple faculty spanning two or more colleges or institutes, and are of strategic importance to the Penn State research enterprise. SIRO leadership works in consultation with faculty, department heads, deans and research institute directors to determine the level of support necessary for each proposal or project. SIRO carefully coordinates all of its support activities with research administrators and financial officers across college, in Research Accounting and the Office of Sponsored Programs.

Poster #189: Understanding the Structure, Interface Interactions and Piezoelectric Properties of Cellulose Using Nonlinear Spectroscopy

I. Chae, S. Huang, M. Makarem, S. H. Kim

Cellulose is one of the most abundant polymers on the earth. In plant cell walls, cellulose is in the presence of microfibrils associated with other matrix polymers. In this study, we focus on understanding the mesoscale (100s nm - 1 um) organization of cellulose in the cell walls and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components by using sum frequency generation/scattering (SFG)/(SFS) vibrational spectroscopy. Also, we investigate the relationship between structure and piezoelectricity of cellulose crystals. This will help us elucidating the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of cellulose and contribute to the development of cellulose based electro-active materials. SFG is a nonlinear optical process, which detects a medium where optical centrosymmetry is absent. For this reason, SFG vibrational spectroscopy provides selective detection of the non-centrosymmetric cellulose crystallites without interference from amorphous matrix polymers around them. Using SFG, we are able to investigate the 3D architecture of cellulose organizations including orientation and packing information in the intact cell walls without chemical or physical purifications. Understanding the interaction between cellulose and other plant cell wall components could be a cumbersome task since sum frequency (SF) signal can originate from both cellulose surface and cellulose crystalline bulk. Studying SFS signals, which is originated from the surface, give us the opportunity to study the surface interaction of cellulose with other cell wall components. Detecting SF signal at different scattering angles could give us the ability to distinguish the surface contribution from bulk in SF signal. By measuring SF signal at different scattering angles, we have been able to detect the peaks which are originated from the surface of cellulose nanocrystals. By using this information, we may be able to study the surface interaction of cellulose with other cell wall components. It has been predicted that cellulose has the piezoelectric properties due to its non-centrosymmetric crystal structure. However, there is a lack of control or characterization of the polar ordering of cellulose crystalline domains in its piezoelectric studies. We experimentally proved that SFG signal intensity follows the square of polarization of piezoelectric polymers. The next step is to align the polar ordering of individual cellulose crystals and characterize their piezoelectric responses according to the alignment.

Poster #190: Combinatorial Crystallinity Mapping of Thin Film Photovoltaic Materials Using Raman Spectroscopy

J. Cordell, A. Fioretti, A. Martinez, K. Borup, E. Arca, J. Perkins, A. Zakutayev, A. Tamboli

Photovoltaic cell performance has improved greatly in recent years, but many materials for these cells remain less studied. Combinatorial mapping of materials aims to speed up the rate of discovery based on technological needs and in this study, Raman spectroscopy equipment was set up to identify the quality of mass libraries of samples with regards to photovoltaic applications. Films consisting of the II-IV-V2 composition and other materials were sputter-deposited and analyzed for crystallinity and compared based on growth conditions to optimize paths to useful solar cell properties. The crystallinity and cohesion to single-crystalline references in some cases showed Sb2SeXS3-X and ZnSiP2 to be promising candidates for photovoltaic applications while Mo2N and ZnSnN2 require further combinatorial investigation to optimize general growth means. The Raman equipment successfully measured maps of these samples enabling comparison of libraries of material spectra and is being extended to enable photoluminescence mapping in the near future.

Poster #191: Radio Frequency Resonator Development for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

G. Lee, Y. E. Kim, J. Choi, S. Jung, W. Luo, N. Gandji, E. Semouchkina, M. T. Lanagan, T. Neuberger

The Signal to noise ratio (SNR) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for high resolution imaging. Several factors determine the SNR of the MR images. Some of these include the field strength of the main magnet (B0) and the size and the design of the detector (radiofrequency (RF) coil). The SNR is roughly proportional to B0 as well as the filling factor of the RF resonator. Therefore, it is essential for an "ideal" experiment that the RF resonator has an adapted geometry and is able to produce a homogenous, strong magnetic field (B1). The design and the realization of several RF coil concepts for a 14.1 T, 89 mm inner diameter vertical bore Agilent preclinical micro-imaging system (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) will be described in this work. Presented designs will include a surface coil for mouse eye imaging, a surface coil for lizard brain imaging, a birdcage coil for mouse brain imaging, a four separate shielded transmit/receive scroll coil setup which uses the common gradient set for multiple seed imaging , and a miniaturized patch antenna for 14.1 T.

Poster #192: Defect Phenomena in Nanostructures: An Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy Study

N. Alem, F. Zhang, A. Azizi, D. Mukherjee, S. Juhl, P. Moradifar

The atomic and chemical structure of materials can have a profound effect on the resulting physical, chemical and mechanical properties and lead to applications in electronics and optoelectronic, energy and catalysis. Probing and understanding the effect of defects, vacancies, interfaces and grain boundaries on the chemical, physical and electronic properties of materials is a crucial step in material nano-engineering. We use ultra-high resolution aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to visualize the structure, bonding, and chemistry in a wide variety of nanocrystals atom-by-atom. This presentation will show the structurally-driven chemical, physical and electronic properties by probing the atomic bonding, registry and chemistry using a variety of electron microscopy imaging and spectroscopy techniques. The focus of our current research is mainly on complex oxides, van der Waals heterostructures, heterojunctions, and novel nanostructures synthesized under extreme conditions.

Poster #193: Localization Mapping for Assimilating a Stochastic Monsoon-Hadley Circulation Model

M. De La Chevrotiere, J. Harlim

Ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) with small ensemble sizes tend to induce spurious long-range correlations in the ensemble approximation of the model covariance. The typical approach to this long standing issue consists of using space localization techniques that effectively reduce the spurious correlations. Many such techniques have been proposed, for instance with the tapering functions of Furrer and Bengtsson (2007) or the Gaspari and Cohn localization functions (1999). While these techniques have been very useful, they require exhaustive tuning and present challenges when applied to nonlinear observations. Recently, Anderson and Lei (2013) have introduced an approach based on empirical localization functions (ELF) that requires almost no tuning. However, ELF are constructed in stages and have limitations when applied to large atmospheric models. Motivated by this approach, a data-driven technique that requires no tuning, the localization mapping (LM), was recently introduced to improve the sample correlation estimation in the EnKF when small ensemble sizes are used. A LM is a linear map that takes the poorly estimated sample correlation in each EnKF cycle and transforms it into a sample of improved correlation. Here we examine the use of LM for serial EnKF in a high-dimensional monsoon- Hadley circulation model with a stochastic multicloud convective parameterization in the case of nonlinear observation operators.

Poster #194: Implementing a Zero Suicide Framework in the United States Air Force: Using an Engaged Scholarship-Community Collaboration Model

M. G. Hamel, K. R. Aronson, K. R. Hawkey, D. F. Perkins

Historically, the military suicide rate was significantly lower than the civilian rate. Since the early 1990's, service member suicides have increased dramatically. In response, the US Air Force (AF) implemented a suicide prevention program. The program focused on increasing suicide awareness and knowledge via education and leadership support. The program also instituted cultural changes that made it more acceptable for service members to acknowledge suicidality. These efforts reduced Air Force suicide rates by 40%. Since the advent of the Global War on Terror, however, suicide rates in the military have increased substantially. In response, the Air Force partnered with the Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness at PSU to identify potential systemic reasons (e.g., decreased adherence to prevention practices, program drift) for the increase in suicide rates and to identify effective suicide prevention approaches to enhance and strengthen current Air Force suicide efforts. The partnership team identified a relatively new suicide prevention framework--the Zero Suicide Systems Approach (ZSSA) that has reduced suicide rates in several large healthcare systems. ZSSA emphasizes a system-wide approach to suicide prevention focused on seven core elements: Lead - Develop a culture that embeds suicide prevention at all levels ; Identify - Screen and assess for suicide risk ; Engage - Develop safety plans that work ; Treat - Address suicidality directly using evidence-based treatments ; Transition - Provide proactive outreach to patients; Train - Develop a competent and confident workforce; Improve - Use data to make improvements to the system . The Clearinghouse is adapting the framework of the ZSSA approach to fit the Air Force context by focusing on: 1)Interviewing providers and staff to identify processes and procedures that align (or do not align) with the ZSSA, 2)Identifying unique challenges and knowledge gaps to be addressed in ZSSA training and in the provision of implementation coaching, 3)Developing systematic screening and assessment protocols using empirically validated measures, 4)Developing and implementing a robust suicide prevention training program, 5)Identifying and tailoring evidence-based suicide treatments, 6)Interviewing health care organizations to understand quality improvement approaches; assessing electronic health records for potential data collection. The Clearinghouse is closely partnering with: Air Force Medical Operations Agency (AFMOA); Air Force Medical Services Agency (AFMSA); Education Development Center (EDC); Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC); Five Air Combat Command Bases (Langley, Tyndall, Davis-Monthan, Holloman, and Nellis); Numerous experts in the field of suicide prevention. It is predicted that the Air Force will evidence significant declines in suicides within two-years of the implementation of the ZSSA. This partnership will also help inform the science of suicide prevention.

Poster #195: PA-WRRC: Advancing Water Resources Research in Pennsylvania and the Mid-Atlantic Region

E. W. Boyer, T. L. Richard

The Pennsylvania Water Resources Research Center (PA-WRRC) at Penn State University, founded in 1964, is authorized by Congress as one of the nation's 54 water resources research institutes comprising the National Institutes of Water Resources. The program is administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey, in a unique Federal-State-University partnership. The PA-WRRC emphasizes issues pertinent to Pennsylvania as well as the northeast and mid-Atlantic regions, aiming to advance problems in water quality and quantity. Current research areas of interest include: 1) Impacts of hydraulic fracturing on water resources; 2) Effects of climatic variability and change on water resources; 3) Tools to quantify water availability or improve water supplies (e.g., conservation and pollution prevention, remediation and restoration, water infrastructure, drinking water quality and treatment, watershed assessment and management); and 4) Causes, consequences, and remediation of pollutants (e.g., nutrients, pesticides, emerging contaminants, algal blooms). In this presentation, recent PA-WRRC activities in research, education, and outreach are highlighted.

Poster #196: Novel Multilayer Polymer Laminates for High Energy Density and Low Loss Dielectrics

M. Vecchio, A. Meddeb, M. T. Lanagan, Z. Ounaies

This project focuses on the breakdown behavior and the energy density of multilayered polymer laminates under pulsed conditions and at low and high temperatures. Findings will inform the development of novel polymer-based capacitors with high dielectric permittivity, low dielectric loss and high energy density. An important expected outcome is that the multilayered laminates will enhance capacitor and cable reliability at high temperature because dielectric failure paths are deflected at the many interfaces due to barrier effects. A central goal of the project is to exploit the model interfaces afforded by multilayered structures to increase effective breakdown strength and dielectric permittivity of the resulting polymer laminates. Specifically, we will present results on an all-polymer laminate with higher breakdown strength than any of the constituents, lower dielectric loss and high permittivity. Related technical objectives consider the importance of scale (micro- and submicron- laminates), the role of transport properties at interfaces, unique polymer polar structures and new dielectric phenomena at high electric fields and temperature.

Poster #197: Seismicity in Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania State Seismic Network

K. Homman, A. Nyblade

Broadband seismic data from 101 seismic stations operating within and surrounding Pennsylvania from February 2013 to June 2015 have been used to locate seismic events within the Commonwealth and estimate magnitudes. The data come from five seismic networks, with most of the data provided by two temporary networks, the USArray Transportable Array network and the PASEIS network. Event locations and magnitudes for 1,492 events within Pennsylvania were obtained. Event magnitudes, determined using a local magnitude scale (ML) for the eastern U.S., range between 1.0 and 3.0, with an average magnitude of 1.8. 1,480 of the events can be correlated with mining activity based on the proximity of events to mines or quarries, event origin times on weekdays during working hours, and a number of waveform characteristics. For the other 12 events, there is no correlation in time or space with oil or gas drilling activity and therefore these events are most probably natural earthquakes. To improve the monitoring of seismicity in the state, between July 2015 and August 2016 a 30-station permanent seismic network was constructed with support from the Pennsylvania Departments of Conservation and Natural Resources and Environmental Protection. Data from the network are being provided openly in real time and used to detect and locate seismic events throughout the Commonwealth.

Poster #198: Investigating the Mechanism of Chemotaxis in Small Molecule Systems

A. M. Sendecki, S. Deng, P. S. Cremer

Chemotaxis, the directed movement resulting from a concentration gradient, has recently been observed in simple systems such as enzyme-substrate turnover or small molecule-ligand binding. Unlike bacterial chemotaxis, which involves a complex signaling pathway to induce movement, the underlying cause of chemotaxis in these simpler systems remains unknown. To investigate this, we have employed model systems that focus on the energetic favorability of binding alone, without any enzymatic turnover or binding-induced conformational change, and explored the effect of size on the chemotactic movement. By understanding the mechanism of chemotaxis, this could lead to a useful tool in developing targeted drug delivery mechanisms.

Poster #199: Computational Characterization of the Multiaxial Failure Response of Trabecular Skull Bone

A. Ranslow, Z. Fang, R. Kraft

The development of a multiaxial failure criterion for trabecular skull bone is important in many clinical and biological applications. This type of criterion could be incorporated into constitutive models to model bone under daily loading scenarios that typically are multiaxial in nature. There has been limited research conducted around multiaxial loading of trabecular bone and such a criterion has not been developed. To help fill this gap, we developed 30 microstructural finite element models of porous skull bone and subjected them to displacement loading simulations that spanned all areas of three-dimensional stress and strain space. These simulations were used to develop a continuous yield surface representative of the overall microscale trabecular bone response. In addition to results from FEM simulations, a similar approach has been used with high-resolution microCT data and the Material Point Method (MPM). The MPM is advantageous as it does not require a traditional finite element mesh. FEM meshes are difficult to create for complex geometries. However, MPM meshes can be developed easily and automatically, directly from microCT images. Initial results are promising and we have seen good comparison with experimental results. Parallel scalability of MPM has also been assessed since large-scale simulations can be expected for the future research.

Poster #200: Water Quality Laboratory

K. Confer

We invite you to take a look at the IEE Water Quality Lab! Our newly remodeled and expanded facilities feature state-of-the-art analytical equipment for analyzing cations, anions, nutrients, metals, and trace elements in water samples. We also offer space to prepare and store your water samples. Our newly expanded mission emphasizes helping students, faculty, and staff with advancing their research capability. We offer skilled and experienced analytical technicians to assist you in chemical analyses, analytical instruction, and methods training. Our competitive rates and flexibility allow researchers to submit samples for analysis and receive results in a timely manner. Students may receive training and perform their own analyses at reduced rates. To ensure the highest quality for your data, our facility utilizes Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater as a basis for analytical techniques. In addition, we include third party quality control standards in all analytical runs. Precision and accuracy are tested by participation in biannual round-robin comparisons with national labs. Quality assurance data are provided to our lab users, along with detailed results for your water samples. Please come see our facility. For more information feel free to stop by anytime, or contact us via email: or by phone 814-863-0158. Our services and rates are available online at

Poster #201: Advanced Coatings and Materials Processing for Extreme Environments

J. Stokes, B. Gorin, R. Sherbondy, E. Alat, Z. Cohick, S. Newby, E. Sun, N. O'Brien, A. Suchanec, M. Cavorsi, M. Pauley, G. Edelman, S. Harwa, N. Bonsignore, T. Medill, S. Showers, T. J. Eden, D. E. Wolfe

Research activities include the synthesis, processing and characterization of multilayered, nano composite, ceramic and metallic coatings and materials which are fabricated by EB-PVD, plating, anodizing, cold spray, cathodic arc, sputtering, hot pressing, and spray metal forming. Research interests include: the enhancement of microstructure and composition to tailor and improve thermal conductivity and erosion resistance of thermal barrier coatings for jet engine turbine blades, structure-process-property-performance relationships for multifunctional gadolinia based neutron detectors, corrosion inhibition for the natural gas industry, surface modification for biomedical coatings and orthopedics, antimicrobial coatings based on doped oxides, and oxidation resistant coatings for nuclear fuel rod protection. Erosion resistant coatings for jet engine compressor blades, wear resistant coatings for industrial application, optimization of fuel cell materials for UAVs, high temperature materials for advanced power generation, high strength aluminum alloys for armor, smart materials and sensors for nondestructive evaluation, and thermal management systems are also researched. These material advancements contribute to a variety of applications in the aerospace, defense, tooling, power, biomedical, and optical industries. They represent the convergence of research driven materials science and engineering with an applied nature.

Poster #202: Manipulating Coffee Ring Patterns by Using Diffusiophoresis

F. Mohajerani, R. Guha, A. Sen, D. Velegol

The coffee ring phenomenon is the formation of a ring-shaped pattern during the evaporation of a colloidal suspension on a surface. Coffee rings have received considerable attention in the literature, due to their importance in a wide range of industrial and natural situations. Numerous colloidal and chemical systems have been used for coffee ring studies, and many of these have focused on suppressing the resulting coffee rings. In our work we have manipulated coffee rings by exploiting the electrokinetic phenomenon of diffusiophoresis. We introduce low concentrations of several types of salts to an initial suspension. During the drying process, gradients of these salts develop, with a higher concentration near the outer rim, resulting in the suppression or intensification of the coffee ring, in addition to other types of patterns. Our modeling is in solid agreement with experimental data. One outcome of this work is the separation of of particles having different sizes, revealing that the coffee ring phenomenon has important fundamental and applied aspects

Poster #203: The Development of a Synthetic Toolbox for the Targeted Synthesis of Metastable Materials, Catalysis Targets, and the Enhanced Understanding of Colloidal Synthesis Routes

J. S. Mondschein, R. E. Schaak

The Schaak group's primary research interests are in the general area of synthetic inorganic materials chemistry. We focus on two aspects: (1) the development of a synthetic toolbox that enables the targeted synthesis of fundamentally interesting materials systems but for which kinetic and/or thermodynamic bottlenecks preclude their formation and (2) the discovery of catalysts relevant to the implementation of renewable energy solutions. Here we present our recent work, including studies that have led to the development of synthetic routes for the successful syntheses of novel metastable materials, an enhanced mechanistic understanding of colloidal synthesis routes, and the design of novel catalyst systems.

Poster #204: Opportunities in Functional Oxide Thin Film Materials

H. Zhang, L. Zhang, R. C. Haislmaier, J. M. Lapano, M. Brahlek, R. Engel-Herbert

While interesting properties in complex oxide materials with perovskite structure offer great potential for application in different domains, ranging from energy harvesting, solid state lighting, photovoltaic conversion, mechanical actuation, sensing, computing and memory, their inception into the market by utilizing them in devices has so far been hampered by the materials quality achieved using conventional thin film deposition techniques. Structural as well as thermodynamic incompatibilities along with challenges in controlling the films defect concentration have so far been the main limiting factors, preventing the realization of the next generation of devices with functionalities beyond the current state-of-the-art. Recent improvements in the control over the film's stoichiometry using a newly developed non-equilibrium growth technique -- hybrid molecular beam epitaxy -- has enabled the synthesis of binary and complex oxide thin films with unprecedented quality. We will present recent breakthroughs in perfecting functional oxide materials in thin film form, bridging the gap between the frontier of fundamental research in oxide electronics on emergent materials and devices and their realization in commercial products, highlighting: 1) novel materials design approach towards In-free transparent conductors with ITO-like performance ; 2) wafer-scale growth of high quality VO2 thin films for solid state RF switching and optical modulator applications in the infrared regime; 3) growth of the layered oxide Sr5Ti4O13 as field tunable, low loss dielectric for microwave applications; 4) epitaxial integration of SrTiO3 directly on Si, a key critical step towards integrating functional complex oxides with conventional semiconductors; 5) scaling growth rates of SrTiO3 beyond 0.5 µm per hour, a leap towards economic oxide thin film epitaxy; 6) stabilizing polar phases in CaTiO3 by epitaxial strain; 7) growth of high quality Mott insulator LaVO3 as active materials for photovoltaic conversion

Poster #205: The Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness: A Penn State Applied Research Center

J. D. Moeller, K. R. Aronson, D. F. Perkins

The pace of military operations during the Global War on Terror has placed enormous stress and demands on Service members and their families. Long duty-related separations, frequent relocations, and living with the threat of harm to their service member have taken their toll on military families. As a result, individual, couple, and family functioning have been negatively impacted. The Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness at Penn State is designed to (a) increase evidence-based practice among social service providers to better assist military families, and (b) conduct applied translational research designed to improve the health and wellbeing of military families. An important element of evidence-based practice is the use of programs and practices that have evidence of effectiveness. Although evidence-based programs and practices are a promising way to promote health and well-being, barriers exist to their implementation. For example, professionals often lack the time and resources to identify, understand, and use these interventions. The Clearinghouse, funded by the Departments of Defense and Agriculture, is an interactive information repository designed to assist professionals identify, understand, implement, and evaluate evidence-based programs and practices for use with military families. The Clearinghouse contains information on more than 1000 evidence-based programs and practices -- the largest such repository of information in the world. The programs residing on the Clearinghouse address a number of issues and challenges currently confronting military families (e.g., parenting, child/youth behavior, family communication, alcohol and substance use, mental health challenges). Programs are reviewed through systematized criteria and placed on a continuum of evidence: Effective, Promising, Unclear (+), Unclear (?), Unclear (-), or Ineffective. Thus, professionals can make informed decisions about how best to intervene with military families who are struggling based on their needs, situational factors, and resources. Technical Assistance (TA) and coaching are also provided by Clearinghouse to further support and empower professionals working with military families by closely guiding professionals to identify, select, implement, and evaluate programs and practices they use with military families. The Clearinghouse has successfully handled more than 1,000 TA and coaching requests. The Clearinghouse is conducting research on a wide range of topics relevant to service members and their families. These include (a) suicide prevention program with the Air Force; (b) the impact of Marine Corps suicides on families; (c) evaluating the Army Family Advocacy Program; (d) implementing and evaluating the New Parent Support Program, and; (e) improving programming offered by Navy Youth Sports and Fitness. Recently, the work of the Clearinghouse was recognized with a W. K. Kellogg Engaged Scholarship Award.

Poster #206: A Rate Law for Magnesite Dissolution in Heterogeneous Porous Media: The Role of Residence Time and Effective Surface Area

H. Wen, L. Li

Spatial heterogeneity in natural subsurface systems governs water fluxes and residence time in reactive minerals, and therefore determines the rates of mineral dissolution. Although extensive literature has documented the rates of mineral dissolution and chemical weathering in natural systems, a general rate law in heterogeneous porous media remains elusive. Here we fill this gap by answering two questions: (1) how and to what extent does spatial heterogeneity affect water residence time and effectively-dissolving surface area in heterogeneous media? (2) What is the rate law that quantifies dissolution rates in heterogeneous porous media? With data constraints from experimental work, we carried out Monte-Carlo numerical experiments of magnesite dissolution within quartz-matrix with spatial distributions characterized by a wide range of permeability variance and correlation length. Although the total surface area and overall flow velocity are the same in all 240 simulations, only 0.7-72.8% of water fluxes through the reactive mineral magnesite. Highly heterogeneous media with large permeability variance and long correlation length diverts water mostly into the non-reactive preferential flow paths, therefore bypassing and minimizing the flow in the low permeability magnesite zones. As a result, the reactive residence time is long and magnesite zones easily reach local equilibrium, leading to small effective surface area and low bulk dissolution rates. Magnesite dissolution rates in heterogeneous media vary from 2.7-100% of the rates in the equivalent homogeneous medium. Based on data from 240 numerical experiments and 45 column experiments, a general exponential rate law was derived to quantify dissolution rates in heterogeneous porous media based on the rate constants measured under well-mixed conditions, reactive residence time, and geostatistical characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. This work emphasizes the critical role of water as the driver of reactions in the natural subsurface.

Poster #207: Evidence of Seizures, Spreading Depression and SUDEP in a Murine Model of Post-Malarial Epilepsy

F. Bahari, P. Ssentongo, D. G. Sim, F. G. Gilliam, S. L. Weinstein, A. E. Robuccio, E. C. Price, A. Nabi, B. Shanmugasundaram, M. W. Billard, P. J. Drew, A. Read, S. J. Schiff, B. J. Gluckman

Rationale It is well established - though relatively unknown - that cerebral malaria (CM) leads to epilepsy in an estimated 300,000 children per year. Mortality rates among persons with epilepsy are 2-3 times that of in developed countries and are reported as high as 6 times in malaria-endemic regions. Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) serves as major mortality risk, and is now thought to involve the interaction of seizures, spreading depression and cardio-respiratory failure. We investigated mice cured of CM for evidence of epilepsy, spreading depression and complex epilepsy-related phenomena and to tests intervention strategies. Methods We investigated 4 murine models of CM for evidence of post-malarial epilepsy by combining mouse strains (Swiss Webster (SW), C57BL/6, CBA) and Plasmodium-berghei (Pb) parasites (NK65 and ANKA): SW-PbNK65, SW-PbANKA, C57BL/6-PbANKA and CBA-PbANKA. Cohorts of three-week old littermates were inoculated with infected erythrocytes, then rescued with Artesunate when they demonstrated signs of advanced CM. Controls were inoculated with uninfected erythrocytes. We developed a recording system for long-term monitoring of brain and heart dynamics with DC sensitivity. Animals were implanted with EEG, EMG, and ECG electrodes 14 or more days post-treatment, and video-EEG monitored continuously for 1-8 months per animals. Results Post-treatment death rates prior to implant were observed in some mixtures, with the largest rate in SW-PbANKA. In these cases, death was typically accompanied by a single seizure-like behavioral event followed either by immediate death or a severe decrement in health. in all model combinations, recurrent spontaneous seizures were observed in a large fraction (50-90%) of the animals that survived to recording. Seizures were typically accompanied by clear spreading depression signatures in the DC component of the recordings. All epileptic mice with ECG recordings showed significant changes in cardiac activity associated with seizures. In 80% of the seizures, a transient preictal episode of tachycardia occurred followed by ictal and late-ictal bradycardia. AV node blocks were observed ictally and post-ictally in 66% of seizures. Putative SUDEP events were observed in all models recorded, including 5/13 SW-PbANKA and 8/20 SE-PbNK65. Conclusions We have developed models of post-malarial epilepsy In long-term chronic recordings, we observe complex interactions between seizures, heart arrhythmia, spreading depression, and death. These observations are consistent with pathologies of the human condition of SUDEP. These models, which are induced from infection not genetic mutation, therefore provide a unique platform for the study of the mechanisms of SUDEP and models to investigate the complex interactions between seizures, spreading depression, cardiac and respiratory dysfunction and SUDEP.

Poster #208: Reinvent Your Library Research

L. R. Musser

The Penn State University Libraries provides access to over 700 specialized databases to research literature, data and statistics, as well as numerous tools and specialists to aid in analyzing and organizing research data. Using these tools, today's researcher can not only locate relevant literature but track citations, find related articles, as well as build and share an annotated database of relevant literature. Alerts can notify of newly published resources and, using BrowZine, you can browse the latest journals from a single interface. Articles, posters, and data can be deposited in Penn State's repository, ScholarSphere, and library consultants can assist with data management plans, statistics, GIS tools, copyrights and more. Take a look at some of the modern tools provided by the Libraries to help you efficiently stay up-to-date and on the cutting edge of the latest research trends.

Poster #209: Geographic Variation in Residential Interior Ornateness

S. Rahimi, C. Andris, X. Liu

Airbnb is a hallmark institution in the sharing economy, allowing anyone with a bed and shelter to act like a micro-hotel, i.e. a bed-and-breakfast for other travelers. Travelers often spend less on Airbnb rentals than hotels and get a residential experience in a new place. Since hosts advertise their rentals on Airbnb, the site has a wealth of residential interior images from all over the world: from rural Africa to downtown Manhattan. As part of an ongoing project, We analyze one million Airbnb rental images geolocated in major global cities, and ask: how do people decorate their homes in different locales? How do these differ at the city level, country level and neighborhood level? What types of cultures are involved? We use image rating responses from Mechanical Turk as well as deep learning to automate image room-type classification and to automatically detect differences in interior styles. We find overarching indicators of globalization and a lack of local culture and use of nearby natural resources, but that different neighborhoods within cities have different levels or ornateness when decorating their properties.

Poster #210: Human Skin Color as a Model Phenotype for Testing Human Coding Polymorphisms in Zebrafish

K. C. Ang, V. A. Canfield, T. C. Foster, S. E. Arnold-Croop, K. C. Cheng

Genome-wide studies of complex traits and diseases yields candidate polymorphisms associated with phenotype, but functional testing in model organisms is necessary to establish causation. The growing number of candidate genes and polymorphisms found through SNP chip and whole genome sequence analysis has created a pressing need for systematic experimental approaches for assessing phenotypic impact. We are testing the hypothesis that a convergence of human data focusing on phenotypic extremes, and experimental animal data can be used to accelerate phenotypic testing of candidate polymorphisms. We are using an easy-to-score phenotype, skin color, as a model for studying other multigenic phenotypes. Towards the identification of candidate polymorphisms involved in determining the lighter skin color of East Asians and Amerindians, we collected samples from a population admixed for Amerindian and African ancestry. Among our first tasks was to determine the extent to which potentially confounding factors such as the most pervasive European light skin color alleles or albinism were present in these populations. The most common European light skin color alleles, A111T of SLC24A5 and L374F of SLC45A2, are present at frequencies of 0.14 and 0.02, respectively, indicating a likely African origin for SLC24A5. The Kalinago in the Commonwealth of Dominica also includes 3 albino individuals among the sampled population of ~3000. Exome sequencing revealed double homozygous missense mutations in the albinos, a 4 bp inversion resulting in N273K and W274V (NW273KV) was present in OCA2; these mutations were heterozygous in 4 obligate carriers. In addition, we also identified another homozygous missense mutation, R305W, in all albinos. Samples that are either heterozygous for NW273KV and homozygous for R305W or just homozygous for R305W showed normal pigmentation. Our finding is consistent with a model in which the same chromosome containing NW273KV in a previously identified compound heterozygous African American albino for OCA2 also carries R305W. We are assessing the potential phenotypic effect of R305W using zebrafish.

Poster #211: Miniaturized RF Coil Receiver Circuit for 7T and 14T MRI

K. Choi, T. Neuberger, G. C. Lee

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used soft-tissue imaging modality that has evolved over the past several years. MRI is a powerful and versatile medical diagnostic tool capable of providing in-vivo diagnostic images of human and animal anatomies, without the harmful radiation. Current research efforts in MRI system design are driven by the need to obtain detailed high resolution images with improved image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a given magnetic field strength. Invariably, this requirement demands the development of high performance MRI radio frequency (RF) coil driver and signal receiver circuits. This project addresses this need by developing a miniaturized RF circuits that can be placed as close to the MRI RF coils. Initially the circuit consists of a preamplifier built with non-magnetic discrete components. Then we will add the analog signal acquisition system which consists of an analog-to-digital signal converter along with the data buffer RAM. Furthermore we plan to add wireless digital data transmitter to the system, to completely remove RF signal cable which always reduces the SNR of the MRI system. The final aim of this project is to design and implement the RF coil signal receiver system in a single chip which can be placed at very close proximity to the RF coil and transmit the signal data wirelessly. This way, we expect to achieve the greatest SNR of the system and make high-definition MRI. As we progress the implementation steps, we will compare the performance, comparisons between the new prototypes and existing system with not-so-close-to-RF- coil placed ones (ie. with RF cables).

Poster #212: Nanogeometry and Nanodynamics

V. H. Crespi, P. E. Lammert, Y. Tang, J. C. Albert

We consider how geometrical constraints, broadly construed, can animate new physics in nanometer-scale systems. Examples include topochemical formation of diamond nanothreads at high pressure, topological constraints on chemical interaction in dual-sided adsorption, and new mechanisms to spontaneously fold nanoscale sheets into desired patterns. Other examples include controlling grain boundaries in 2D systems, mechanisms of action in chemically powered nanomotors, simulations of the growth of cellulose microfibrils, reconfigurable 2D membranes, and novel effects of quantum confinement in 3D metalattices.

Poster #213: Targeted Therapeutics for Pancreatic Cancer

G. A. Clawson, X. Tang, S. S. Linton, C. O. McGovern, W. S. Loc, T. Abraham, W. Pan, P. J. Butler, M. Kester, J. H. Adair, G. L. Matters

Most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients survive less than six months from their time of diagnosis due to the inability to diagnose PDAC at an early disease stage coupled with a lack of effective treatment modalities. Targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that deliver improved doses of chemotherapeutic drugs specifically to PDACs could improve chemotherapeutic efficacy while avoiding the toxicities typically associated with systemic drug administration. Identification of biomolecules that enhance the up-take of NP-encapsulated drugs by PDAC cells is required to achieve this outcome. Here we describe the selection, characterization and targeting efficacy of a DNA aptamer (AP) that binds to a cell surface G-protein coupled receptor found on PDAC cells, the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR). Using dual SELEX selection against an "exposed" CCKBR peptide and CCKBR-expressing PDAC cells, a pool of a few thousand DNA APs was identified. Further down-selection was based on binding affinity, predicted secondary structure, and confirmation that the AP does not activate CCKBR signaling or stimulate tumor cell proliferation. 3D Confocal microscopy showed that AP 1153 is internalized by PDAC cells in a receptor-mediated fashion. Compared to non-targeted or gastrin peptide-targeted NPs, bioconjugation of AP 1153 to the surface of fluorescent CPSNPs (calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles) substantially improved the delivery of NP cargos to PDAC tumors in vivo. In addition, we have shown that 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (FdUMP), an active metabolite of 5-fluorouracil (5FU), can be encapsulated at therapeutic doses and retain biological activity in CPSNPs . CPSNPs were synthesized to encapsulate FdUMP, 5FU or 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR), and surface-modified with methoxy-terminated polyethylene glycol (mPEG). LC-MS/MS analysis showed that only the phosphorylated agent, FdUMP, was encapsulated successfully and not the non-phosphorylated 5FU and FdUR. Free FdUMP was twice as effective as free 5FU in reducing PANC-1 proliferation in vitro, and the encapsulation of FdUMP within CPSNPs further improved efficacy. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that treatment with mPEG-FdUMP-CPSNPs arrested cancer cells prior to entrance into G1 phase. Western blots revealed successful inhibition of thymidylate synthase, which indicated that the FdUMP in CPSNPs remained biologically active to block cell proliferation. Thus, these findings represent a novel methodology to encapsulate and deliver an efficacious dose of active agents to pancreatic tumors.

Poster #214: Comparing Costs and Generation Mix Alternatives for the Application of the Clean Power Plan in the PJM Electricity Market: Application of Unit Commitment

A. Dupuis, M. Webster

Carbon Dioxide is one of the primary greenhouse gases present in the Earth's atmosphere and is driving global climate change. The power sector is the single largest source of carbon pollution in the United States. The EPA has recently designed a federal rule called the Clean Power Plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from U.S existing power plants. The purpose of this work is to study the impact of the Clean Power Plan on the PJM Interconnection and to compare the impacts of different strategies to achieve state emissions goal. Scenarios are designed to evaluate the environmental impacts and cost-effectiveness of three different compliance strategies and ascertain how these strategies interact with one another. The three main strategies analyzed in this thesis are 1) participating in interstate CO2 emissions trading, 2) increasing the operational efficiency of existing coal-fired power plants, and 3) increasing the amount of wind generation capacity. This project uses a unit commitment model to simulate a range of different scenarios and policy structures, and I compare the resulting costs and generation mixes tradeoffs. I simulate the enforcement of the Clean Power Plan federal rule in this model by putting a limit on the total tons of CO2 that can be emitted over a certain period of time. The strategies simulated do not change the overall CO2 emissions, which is always equal to the emission cap imposed, but they vary with respect to the cost of compliance with the Clean Power Plan and the fraction of coal generation at risk of premature retirement. Electricity prices and total system cost will increase with compliance in all scenarios studied, as compared with a baseline case with no emissions limit. Coal generation is displaced by natural gas generation in all scenarios, when compared with the no carbon cap baseline. The relative economic and regulatory effectiveness of the strategies is framed in terms of the tradeoffs between the cost of meeting the cap and coal's share of cumulative generation. The overall result is that increasing wind capacity allows a larger increase in coal's share of cumulative generation whereas improving coal efficiency reduces the risk of premature coal unit retirements, and that if states cooperate within an emissions trading framework that compliance costs can be reduced.

Poster #215: The Way We Conceptualize Politics: A Computational Study on the Democratic and Republican Semantic Spaces

B. Schloss, S. Liu, P. Li

The question which this research attempts to answer is whether or not computational models which learn distributed semantic representations, like Google's Word2Vec algorithm (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013; Mikolov, Yih, & Zweig, 2013), are able to capture meaningful variation in the representation of concepts across individuals and groups of individuals. As a case study, we explore the semantic space generated from American presidential debates from 1999-2016, and we attempt to model how different political parties and candidates organize politically charged abstract nouns. In particular, we compare the conceptual organization of these concepts between the Republican and Democratic parties in general and over time, as well as the conceptual organization of these concepts between the 2016 presidential nominees, Donald Trump and Hilary Clinton.

Poster #216: Soil Bulk Density Estimation Using a Machine Learning Pedotransfer Function Calibrated for the Continental US

A. Ramcharan, T. Hengl, S. Wills, D. Beaudette

Soil bulk density is needed for soil survey databases, providing weight-to-volume conversions to express soil properties, such as soil organic carbon (SOC), on an area basis. However, bulk density is frequently missed in databases for a variety of reasons. To circumvent this problem, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) to predict bulk density have been developed, but with limited soils data, resulting in much uncertainty in applying PTFs to different soil climates. The objective of this paper was to create a novel PTF based on soils and environmental data applicable to the continental US. A total of 41,878 horizons were extracted from the USDA-NRCS Characterization Database to build the PTF. The PTF was developed using the machine learning ensemble tree-based algorithm Random Forest; an algorithm that can exploit numerical and categorical data. The RMSPE of the model was 0.13 g cm-3 and it was shown to reliable provide weight to volume conversions for SOC for soils with clay contents of 40% or more. The model was built and is freely available in R, providing accurate predictions to gap fill soils databases for the continental US.

Poster #217: Natural Gas Supply Chain Process Framework

T. Murphy, S. Tracey, K. Ruamsook

Natural gas supply chains are complex, comprising of multiple interrelated subsystems and various types of market segments--each of which is undergoing changes driven by shale gas revolution. An understanding of the natural gas supply chains and the interrelationships among these systems within the context of the broader end-to-end supply chain is lacking. This study conceptualizes a framework representing natural gas supply chain physical processes, taking into account changes in related technology and business environment. It provides a holistic depiction of key physical processes and interactions, and underlying activities.

Poster #218: Rebuilding Mouse Cortex after Focal Ischemic Stroke by In Situ Reprogramming Reactive Astrocytes into Functional Neurons

Y. Chen, N. Ma, J. Yin, S. Huang, M. Chen, E. Yellin, G. Lee, Z. Pei, G. Chen

We have recently demonstrated that reactive glial cells in the mouse brain can be directly reprogrammed into functional neurons by a single neural transcription factor NeuroD1 (Guo et al., Cell Stem Cell, 2014). Our in vivo cell conversion technology provide a potential regenerative method to treat brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Brain ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability, and currently there is no effective therapy to restore neuronal loss or recover tissue damage after cerebral ischemia. Here we apply glia-neuron conversion in a focal stroke model in mice in order to help restore the lost neurons and brain functions. We employed a mouse focal ischemic stroke model by injecting endothelin-1 (1-31) into mouse motor cortex to cause blood vessel constriction and brain damage. After stroke, we regenerated functional neurons by infecting reactive astrocytes specifically with adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing NeuroD1. Intriguingly, we found great beneficial effects brought by NeuroD1-mediated glia-to-neuron conversion in the stroke area: (1) the cortical collapse was largely rescued, (2) loss of neuronal marker NeuN was greatly reduced, (3) the glial scar formation by reactive astrocytes and microglia was widely reduced. Taken together, our studies suggest that direct reprogramming of reactive astrocytes into functional neurons might provide a potential therapy for brain repair after stroke.

Poster #219: Combining Cell Biology, Image Analysis, and Mechanical Modeling to Reveal How the Cell Walls of Guard Cells Enable Plants to "Breathe" Through Their Stomata

C. T. Anderson, Y. Rui, C. Xiao, H. Yi, B. Kandemir, J. Z. Wang, V. M. Puri

In plants, stomatal guard cells are dynamic pairs of cells that can rapidly expand and contract to control gas exchange and transpiration at the surface of plants. Stomatal guard cells are thus important regulators of photosynthesis and water use in plants. Distinct from other plant cells that irreversibly expand during growth, the walls of guard cells must be both strong to withstand tremendously high turgor pressures, and elastic to allow for repeated expansion and contraction. However, our understanding of the relative importance of cell wall components, which include cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins, in stomatal function is still lacking. We have recently shown that cellulose and xyloglucan, a hemicellulose, are required for normal stomatal function in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using guard cell-specific transcriptome data, we identified pectin-modifying genes that are up- or down-regulated in Arabidopsis guard cells, and examined stomatal development and function in knockout mutants that lack these genes. We characterized a gene named VERSATILE POLYGALACTURONASE1 (VPG1), which encodes a polygalacturonase enzyme that cleaves pectin. Compared to wild-type controls, developing stomata are smaller in vpg1-1 knockout mutants. In stomatal closure assays, wild-type stomata close smoothly, whereas vpg1-1 knockout stomata exhibit more variable stomatal closure. Seedling root growth, dark-grown seedling height, and adult plant size are also reduced in vpg1-1 knockout mutants. When VPG1 is overexpressed, root elongation and rosette size are enhanced, and stomata open faster than in wild-type controls. Together, these data suggest that VPG1 is required to maintain normal wall elasticity in stomatal guard cells and cell expansion in other tissues during plant growth. We are developing new tools for image analysis that will allow us to map the three-dimensional locations of cell wall components in guard cells, which, together with a set of computational mechanical models we are constructing, will provide a more comprehensive understanding of how the cell walls of guard cells facilitate stomatal dynamics, allowing plants to efficiently capture energy from the sun and use water to grow.

Poster #220: Anisotropic Microstructure and Superelasticity of Additive Manufactured NiTi Alloy Bulk Builds Using Laser Directed Energy Deposition

B. A. Bimber, R. F. Hamilton, J. Keist, T. A. Palmer

The microstructure and superelastic behavior in additive manufactured (AM) NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. Using elementally blended Ni and Ti powder feedstock, Ni-rich build coupons were fabricated via the laser-based directed energy deposition (DED) technique. The build volumes were large enough to extract tensile and compressive test specimens from selected locations for spatially resolving microconstituents and the underlying stress-induced martensitic phase transformation (SIMT) morphology. In the as-deposited condition, X-ray diffraction identified the B2 atomic crystal structure of the austenitic parent phase in NiTi SMAs, and Ni4Ti3 precipitates were the predominant microconstituent identified through scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure was anisotropic, with the coarsest Ni4Ti3 precipitate morphology nearest the substrate, and a finer morphology observed farthest from the substrate. The SIMT morphology was ascertained from in-situ full-field deformation measurements calculated using the digital image correlation (DIC) analysis technique.DIC confirmed that the SIMT predominately occurred in the finer precipitate morphology. Heat treatment decreased the degree of anisotropy, and DIC analysis revealed localized SIMT strains increased compared to the as-built condition.

Poster #221: Role of Immobilized AQDS as Redox Mediators in the Simultaneous Azo Dye Reduction and Electricity Generation in a MFC

C. M. Martinez, X. P. Zhu, B. E. Logan

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are currently considered as renewable energy production and also potentially economic wastewater treatment systems that generate electric energy from any biodegradable organic materials through microorganisms assisted oxidation processes. As a promising environmental biotechnology for wastewater treatment and renewable energy production, MFCs has drawn much attention in the past decades. However, one of the bottlenecks in MFCs is the quite low power production mainly due to the low rate of extracellular electron transfer from bacteria to anode, a key factor that defines the theoretical limits of energy conversion Redox mediators (RM) such as humic substances (HS) and their quinone model compounds (anthraquinone 2,6 disulfonate (AQDS)) are compounds that can accelerate the electron transfer from a primary electron donor to a terminal electron acceptor, which may increase the reaction rates by one to several orders of magnitude and in some cases, they have been indispensable for reactions to take place. Previous studies have documented that both dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation are competitive to each other. One portion electrons are transferred to azo dye molecule for its reduction, while other portions electrons are transferred to anodic electrode for electricity generation. However, all these studies reported that the electrons capture by the RM were preferentially transferred to azo dye rather than the bioanode of the MFC, impacting directly in the bioelectricity generated. So, although it is possible to maintain both process in the MFC, the main challenge is to achieve that both process are favored without affect each other. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the feasibility to use AQDS immobilized as RM to achieve the simultaneous azo dye reduction and bioelectricity generation in air-cathode microbial fuel cell. Two strategies of immobilization were evaluated and compared, AQDS immobilized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (AQDS-PVA) and immobilized on anode surface by electropolymerization (AQDS-anode). The results obtained showed that it was possible to maintain simultaneously the azo dye reduction and the bioelectricity generation in the AQDS-anode MFC. Compare with mediator-free MFC and AQDS-PVA MFC, AQDS-anode increased the decolorization rate of reactive red 2 (RR2) 4 and 1.6-folds respectively. This reduction was coupled with the bioelectricity generation. Although in the AQDS-anode MFC the maximum current generated was not affected, the time required to reach this value was much longer than the time required to reach the maximum current output without RR2. It takes around 12 h to reach the maximum current output, time required for completed decolorization of RR2.

Poster #226: Mechanical Characterization of Single and Bonded Particles and Minimum Particle Coordination Number to Form Quality Biomass Pellets

A. Karamchandani, H. Yi, V. M. Puri

Pelletization increases the energy density and bulk density of biomass; thus addressing challenges with storage, handling, and transport. Several factors such as moisture content, temperature, applied pressure, and composition of bio-feedstocks, play an important role in achieving the desired pellet quality. Many studies have been conducted to examine the effect of these factors on the densification process at the macroscopic scale. However, particles are the fundamental building blocks, which lead to the formation of the final assembly, it is of utmost importance to understand the mechanism of densification of ground biomass from the microscale up to the macroscale. In addition, to understand the mechanical process of pelletization, it is critical to study the particle level interactions that cause particles to bind together and form a pellet. This study addresses engineering challenges in measuring the mechanical responses of particle-particle binding and to determine the coordination number to attain a quality particulate assembly. A micromechanical extensometer device, inspired by the MEMS technology, was used to provide novel information about binding properties of particles and bonds formed during the densification of biomass. The effect of moisture, which has a significant role in forming pellets, was examined based on the micromechanical characterization of moisture conditioned and unconditioned (control) switchgrass particles. The modulus of elasticity up to 1.5% strain for unconditioned and conditioned switchgrass particles were 1.60 +/- 0.33 GPa and 6.99 +/- 1.66 GPa, respectively (p=0.00). The nominal fracture strain of unconditioned and conditioned switchgrass particles were determined as 2.43 +/- 0.70 % and 1.51 +/- 0.66 %, respectively (p=0.06). Conditioned particles exhibited three phases sigmoidal shaped stress-strain response. Increase in the stiffness of switchgrass particles is contributed to the bundling of fibers promoted by the activation of binders due to increased moisture content. The addition of moisture generally increased failure stress but decreased failure strain, which can be attributed to the moisture's physiochemical interaction with and arrangement within switchgrass particles. The strength of bonded particles at microscale is a part of the ongoing evaluation, which will determine the strength of the pellets and help clarify the role of natural binders in contributing to pellet formation. In addition, bonded particles assemblies, formed using a single action die-punch, will be extracted for testing under tensile loading using microextensometer. Finally, particulate assemblies formed at different conditions will be investigated to identify the coordination number and corresponding contact area required for strong and durable pellet formation. This information can be used to relate the microscale properties of particles to macroscale quality properties of pellets such as durability, pellet density, and strength.

Poster #230: Two Dimensional Electronic Materials

S. M. Eichfeld, B. Jariwala, Y. C. Lin, G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Y. Al Balushi, D. D. Deng, B. M. Bersch, K. Zhang, R. Zhao, R. Walker, S. Subramanian, N. Briggs, S. Zhang, N. Simonson, M. Hollander, C. H. Lee, M. Wetherington, R. Vila, T. Hewlett, B. Kupp, J. A. Robinson

Ultra-thin layered materials exhibit unique properties such as physical flexibility, chemical inertness, and thickness dependent optoelectronic characteristics, making them versatile for a wide variety of applications. The Robinson group at Penn State focuses on better understanding the growth and electronic properties of a variety of 2D materials, ranging from better-known materials such as graphene or MoS2 to novel 2D materials such as GaN. This poster provides an overview of the research topics done by the group, including: metal organic chemical vapor deposition of TMD selenides and expansion to wafer scale single crystal growth; oxide vaporization synthesis of MoS2 on various substrates; Mott transition characteristics of TaS2 as a function of substrate; direct growth of and electronic transport across vertical and lateral 2D heterostructures; growth and band alignment tuning of epitaxial graphene; growth, discovery, and characterization of novel 2D selenides and III-V materials; and other work furthering the field of 2D electronic materials.

Poster #256: Thermal Characterization of GaN Vertical Devices Using Optical Methods

J. Dallas, S. Choi

Gallium Nitride (GaN) vertical devices have attracted much attention due to their high power, low leakage current, and high temperature operation. Studies have demonstrated that vertical GaN devices are subject to significant temperature-dependent reliability and degradation issues. Despite knowledge of these facts, limited research has been performed on characterizing surface temperature distributions and peak temperature locations known as "hot-spots." In this study, pioneering research is implemented on GaN p-i-n diodes to assess surface temperature distribution by incorporating the use of infrared (IR) thermography, thermoreflectance thermal imaging (TTI), Raman thermography, and thermal simulations. The results suggest that while infrared thermography was able to provide a qualitative temperature distribution, it significantly underestimated peak temperatures due to depth and diffraction limited optical averaging. To more accurately understand this temperature distribution, thermoreflectance thermal imaging was used to measure the Ti/Au p-contact and Raman thermography was performed on TiO2 deposited thermal nano-probes. Coherence between the employed techniques was then validated through thermal modeling.

Poster #258: High Power Interdigitated Carbon Nanotube Based Solid State Micro-Capacitors

M. Spencer, K. Adu, R. Ramakrishnan, C. A. Randall

As electronics have advanced, energy storage has been a leading interest in research. The challenge has been making flexible and solid-state devices on a micro-scale that maintain comparable performance to macro-scale devices. The electrode configuration and fabrication are the leading interests involved in this research, and to date the best configuration is interdigitated electrodes. Most teams that have successfully fabricated these micro electrodes have used several micro fabrication techniques, which are difficult to use in scaled up manufacturing. This project features laser cutting of binder-free CNT electrodes, which eliminates the need for several micro-fabrication techniques. In addition to the CNTs, the Ti/Au current collectors are evaporated and the solid-state electrolyte is deposited on the cell and left to dry. Each of these processes can be done with more than one sample at a time, which makes it much more favorable for large scale manufacturing.

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